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I 29.9/2: C 89/4 



The Secretary of the Interior's 

Standards for the Treatment of 

Historic Properties 

with 

jsgKk* Guidelines for 

the Treatment of 
Cultural Landscapes 




PUBLIC DOCUMENTb 
DEPOSITORY iTEM 

APR 1 8 1997 

CLEMSON 
LIBRARY 



U.S. Department of the Interior 

National Park Service 

Cultural Resource Stewardship and Partnerships 

Heritage Preservation Services 

Historic Landscape Initiative 

Washington, D.C. 

1996 

o 

I 



Outside Cover Photograph: Aerial view over taro fields atKe'anae, Maui, Hawaii Elizabeth Anderson, Maui County 
Planning Office. Inside Cover Photograph: Bed of taro Author, 1995. 



Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 

United States. Dept. of the Interior. 

The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties : with guidelines for the treatment of 
cultural landscapes / edited by Charles A. Birnbaum with Christine Capella Peters ; designed by Charles A. Birnbaum and 
Kathleen J. Madigan. 
p. cm. 

Includes bibliographical references. 

ISBN 0-16-048700-5 

1 . Landscape architecture— Conservation and restoration— Standards—United States. 2. Historic sites— Conservation and 
protection— Standards—United States. 3. Landscape protection— Standards— United States. I. Birnbaum, Charles A. 

II. Capella Peters, Christine, 1957- . III. Historic Landscape Initiative (Project) IV. Title. 

SB472.8.U55 1996 
363.6'9'0973-dc21 



The Secretary of the Interior's 
Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties 

with Guidelines for 

the Treatment of 

Cultural Landscapes 



Edited by Charles A. Birnbaum 
with Christine Capella Peters 

Designed by Charles A. Birnbaum 
and Kathleen J. Madigan 



PUSOCToCUMENTTb 
DEPOSITORY ITEM 

APR 1 8 1997 

CLEM5QN 
LSBRARV 



U.S. Department of the Interior 

National Park Service 

Cultural Resource Stewardship and Partnerships 

Heritage Preservation Services 

Historic Landscape Initiative 

Washington, D.C. 

1996 



MISSION 

As the Nation's principal conservation agency, the 
Department of the Interior has responsibility for most of 
our nationally-owned public lands and natural and 
cultural resources. This includes fostering wise use of 
our land and water resources, protecting our fish and 
wildlife, preserving the environ-mental and cultural values 
of our national parks and historical places, and providing 
forthe enjoyment of life through outdoor recreation. The 
Department assesses our energy and mineral resources 
and works to ensure that their development is in the best 
interests of all our people by encouraging stewardship 
and citizen participation in their care. The Department 
also has a major responsibility for American Indian 
reservation communities and for people who live in island 
territories under U.S. administration. 



THE GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF 
CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 

The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the 
Treatment of Historic Properties and the Guidelines for 
the Treatment of Cultural Landscapesprovide guidance 
to cultural landscape owners, stewards and managers, 
landscape architects, preservation planners, architects, 
engineers, contractors, and project reviewers prior to 
and during the planning and implementation of treatment 
projects. 

In 1992, the first draft of the Gu/cte//nes for the Treatment 
of Historic Landscapes was disseminated for public 
review. This final document integrates comments 
received from the landscape architecture and 
preservation communities over the past few years. 



11 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Acknowledgments v 
Photo Credits vi 

Introduction 1 

The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties and 

Guidelines for the Treatment of Cultural Landscapes 2 

Preservation Planning and Treatment of Cultural Landscapes Defining 

Landscape Terminology 4 

Some Factors to Consider When Selecting An Appropriate Treatment for a Cultural Landscape Project 

Using the Standards and Guidelines for the Treatment of Cultural Landscapes 14 

Organization of the Guidelines 15 



Standards for Preservation and 
Guidelines for Preserving Cultural Landscapes 17 

Introduction 20 

Identify, Retain, and Preserve 20 

Stabilize and Protect Deteriorated Materials 21 

Maintain Historic Materials 22 

Repair Historic Materials 23 

Replace In-Kind 23 

Code and Other Considerations 24 

Preservation Guidelines 25 

Spatial Organization and Land Patterns 27 

Topography 29 

Vegetation 31 

Circulation 35 

Water Features 37 

Structures, Furnishings and Objects 39 

Accessibility Considerations 42 

Health and Safety Considerations 43 

Environmental Considerations 44 
Energy Efficiency Considerations 45 



Standards for Rehabilitation and 
Guidelines for Rehabilitating Cultural Landscapes 47 

Introduction 50 

Identify, Retain, and Preserve 50 

Protect and Maintain Historic Features and Materials 51 

Repair Deteriorated Historic Materials and Features 51 

Replace Deteriorated Historic Materials and Features 52 

Design for Replacement of Missing Historic Features 52 

Alterations/Additions for the New Use 53 

Code and Other Considerations 54 

Rehabilitation Guidelines 55 

Spatial Organization and Land Patterns 56 

Topography 60 

Vegetation 63 

Circulation 68 

Water Features 73 



ill 



Structures, Furnishings and Objects 79 

Accessibility Considerations 86 

Health and Safety Considerations 87 

Environmental Considerations 88 
Energy Efficiency Considerations 88 



Standards for Restoration and 
Guidelines for Restoring Cultural Landscapes 89 

Introduction 92 

Identify, Retain, and Preserve 92 

Protect and Maintain Materials and Features 93 

Repair Features and Materials 93 

Replace Extensively Deteriorated Features 94 

Remove Features from Other Historic Periods 96 

Re-Create Missing Features from the Restoration Period 96 

Code and Other Considerations 97 

Restoration Guidelines 99 

Spatial Organization and Land Patterns 100 

Topography 105 

Vegetation 108 

Circulation 113 

Water Features 116 

Structures, Furnishings and Objects 118 

Accessibility Considerations 122 

Health and Safety Considerations 124 

Environmental Considerations 125 
Energy Efficiency Considerations 125 



Standards for Reconstruction and 
Guidelines for Reconstructing Cultural Landscapes 127 

Introduction 130 

Research and Document Historical Significance 131 

Code and Other Considerations 131 

Reconstruction Guidelines 133 

Spatial Organization and Land Patterns 134 

Topography 134 

Vegetation 136 

Circulation 136 

Water Features 137 

Structures, Furnishings and Objects 137 

Accessibility Considerations 137 

Health and Safety Considerations 138 

Environmental Considerations 138 
Energy Efficiency Considerations 138 



Appendices 139 

Annotated List of Selected Readings 141 
Directory of Organizations 146 



IV 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties, published in 1992, were reviewed by a broad cross-section of 
government entities and private sector organizations. The Guidelines for the Treatment of Cultural Landscapes were 
developed in cooperation with the Alliance for Historic Landscape Preservation and were also reviewed by individual State 
Historic Preservation Offices nationwide. 

Several individuals have made significant contributions to the Guidelines. First, Kay D. Weeks, was instrumental in 
insuring consistency with the Standards, providing an indepth review for the entire document. 

Lauren Meier who orchestrated the first draft of this document (1 989-1 992) established a project framework, an interested 
constituency (bringing in the Alliance and other groups) and project momentum. Christine Capella Peters of the New York 
State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation not only participated in the Alliance working group, but 
dedicated two, one-week long intensive work sessions where a majority of the Guidelines were developed. Kathleen 
Madigan was instrumental in implementing the final production design and layout. 

A number of Alliance members also made contributions over the past few years through their participation in the projects 
working group or in writing. Significant support was offered from Noel D. Vernon, Patricia M. O'Donnell, Ian J. W. Firth, 
George W. Curry, and Shary Page Berg. Additionally, Mary V. Hughes, Barbara Wyatt, Ellen Lipsey, Susan Turner, Julia 
Sniderman, Kathleen Maloney, Catherine Howett, Genevieve Keller, David Jacques, and Lynette Strangstad also provided 
assistance. 

National Park Service (NPS) colleagues also reviewed a number of drafts. This group includes Ed Bearss, Randall Biallas, 
Blaine Cliver, Edward Drotos, Shaun Eyring, Anne Grimmer, Alan Hutchings, Lucy Lawliss, David Look, Linda 
McClelland, Darwina Neal, Robert R. Page, Susan Spain, Pat Tiller, Jan Townsend, and Sherda Williams. NPS 
colleagues also assisted with illustrating the document. Here contributions were made by Sherda Williams, Great Plains 
System Support Office; Maria McEnaney, Great Lakes System Support Office; Elliot Foulds, Lauren Meirand Nora 
Mitchell at the Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation, Lucy Lawliss, Gulf Coast System Support Office; Cathy 
Gilbert, Columbia Cascade Cluster; Robert R. Page, Park Historic Structures and Cultural Landscapes; and, Paul 
Dolinsky, Robert Azola and Judy Collins of the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS). 

Outside of the NPS, several organizations and individuals have assisted with illustrating the document. This includes Pam 
Seager, Rancho Los Alamitos; Nancy LaCola, Downing Park Planning Committee; Fran Beatty, Boston Parks & 
Recreation; Joe DiMatteo, Prospect Park Alliance; Mary Hughes, University of Virginia; John Karel, Tower Grove Park; 
Sara Miller, Central Park Conservancy; Julia Sniderman, Chicago Park District; Elizabeth Anderson, County of Maui 
Planning Department, Dan Mariott, National Trust for Historic Preservation; Shereen Minvielle, Shadows-on-the Teche; 
Don and Carolyn Etter; Marion Pressley, Pressley Associates; Dale Jaeger, The Jaeger Group; Peggy Nelson, 
Landscape Systems; Liz Viza, The Halvorson Company; George Atta, Group 70; Douglas Reed Landscape Architecture; 
and Patricia O'Donnell, Landscapes. The photographer Carol Betsch also provided several photos. 

Finally, this document is dedicated to H. Ward Jandl, who recognized the importance of creating guidelines for 
landscapes, and thus the impetus for a national program. 



Charles A. Birnbaum, FASLA 
Coordinator, Historic Landscape Initiative 



PHOTO CREDITS 

Pages 1-3 Meadow (Carol Betsch) 

Page 6 Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Chinle, Arizona (author, 1 996) 

Page 7 "Fairsted," Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site, Brookline, Massachusetts (Frederick Law 

Olmsted National Historic Site [FLONHS]); Piper Farm at Antietam Battlefield, Antietam, Maryland 

(author, 1994) 
Page 8 Rancho Los Alamitos, California (Rancho Los Alamitos Foundation); Acoma Pueblo, Casa Blanca, 

New Mexico (author, 1 996); Chaco Culture National Historical Park, Bloomfield, New Mexico (courtesy 

NPS) 
Page 1 Emerald Necklace Parks, Boston, Massachusetts (author, 1 989); Nez Perce National Historical Park, 

Spalding, Indiana (courtesy NPS) 

Lyndhurst, Tarrytown, New York (Lyndhurst archives and author, 1 990) 

City Hall, San Francisco, California (author, 1993) 

City Square, Sausalito, California (author, 1993) 

Ferns (author 1988) 

George Washington Memorial Parkway, Washington D.C. (Historic American Buildings Survey 

[HABS], 1994) " 

Ke'anae, County of Maui, Hawaii (author, 1 995); The Alamo, San Antonio, Texas (author, 1 993) 

Irwin Miller House, Columbus, Indiana (author, 1995); Hokenson Brothers Fishery, Apostle Islands 

National Seashore, Wisconsin (courtesy NPS) 

Forsyth Park, Savannah, Georgia (author, 1996); Lafayette Square, St. Louis, Missouri (author, 1994) 

Mission San Jose, San Antonio, Texas (author, 1994) 

George Washington Memorial Parkway, Washington, DC (HABS, 1 994) 

Civic Center, Denver, Colorado (author, 1 993) 

Prescribed burning in a National Park, Arkansas (NPS, 1996) 

Drayton Hall, Charleston, South Carolina (author, 1994) 

Fort Fisher, Petersburg, North Carolina (NPS, 1 989) 

Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site, Hyde Park, New York (LANDSCAPES, 1992); Arkansas 

Post National Memorial (courtesy NPS) 

Tree Stabilization, Warsaw, Poland (author, 1 994); Pampas grass, 1 858 engraving and contemporary 

photo (author, 1994) 

Jamaica Pond Park, Boston, Massachusetts (FLONHS and author, 1990) 

Star Lake, Lower Onondaga Park, Syracuse, New York (Onondaga County Historical Society and 

author, 1989) 

Historic Irrigation system, San Antonio, Texas (author, 1992) Kehlbeck Farmstead, Cass County, 

Nebraska (National Register Files) 

Council Ring at the Clearing, Ellison Bay, Wisconsin (author, 1993) 

Island Bridge, Riverway, Boston, Massachusetts (author, 1988, 1994) 

Accessibility at Houghton Chapel, Wellesley College, Massachusetts (Carol R. Johnson Associates, 

Inc.) 

Pa hoi hoi Lava (Cheryl Wagner) 

1862 U.S. Army Map section, Corinth, Mississippi. (NPS archive) Century-Old Oak, Hudson River 

Valley, New York (author, 1991) 

Corral Fences, Hubbell Trading Post NHS, Ganado, Arizona; Birch Allee, Stan Hywet Hall, Akron, Ohio 

(author, 1996, 1994) 

Replacement Fences, Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site, Atlanta, Georgia, (courtesy NPS); 

Replacement Hedges, Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial, Put-in-Bay, Ohio (courtesy 

NPS); Shelter, Genessee Valley Park, Rochester, New York (LANDSCAPES) 

Central Park with Playground, New York (Central Park Conservancy) 

Accessibility at Hunneywell Visitor's Center, Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts (Arnold 

Arboretum Collection, author 1 994) 

Colonial Parkway, Virginia (HABS) 

Mount Vernon, Virginia (photos by Jack Boucher for HABS) 

Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site, Ganado, Arizona (Landscape Systems/Peggy Nelson) 

Waterford, Virginia (Waterford Foundation) 

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Taro "lo'i", Ke'anae peninsula Maui, Hawaii (Group 70) 

Central Burying Ground (1 754), Boston Common, Boston, Massachusetts (Boston Parks & Recreation, 
Historic Burying Ground Initiative) 

Melrose National Historical Park in Natchez, Mississippi (HABS) 

CCC-era headquarters complex, Scotts Bluff National Monument, Gering, Nebraska (NPS staff, 1 938 
and 1995) 

Tower Grove Park , St. Louis, Missouri (Tower Grove Park) 

Modern highway, which approximates the Oregon Trail approach to Mitchell Pass (courtesy NPS) 
Herbert Hoover National Historic Site, West Branch, Iowa (Land and Community Associates) 
Star-Fort, Ninety-Six Battlefield, Ninety-Six, South Carolina (courtesy NPS) 
Skyline Drive, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia (courtesy NPS and Paul Daniel Mariott) 
Stones River National Battlefield, Murfreesboro, Tennessee (courtesy NPS) 
Stones River National Battlefield, Murfreesboro, Tennessee (courtesy NPS) 
Sawmill Dam, Ozark National Scenic Riverways.Van Buren, Missouri (courtesy NPS) 
Wading Pool, Martin Luther King Park, Buffalo, New York (LANDSCAPES) 
Jamaica Pond Park, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts (Pressley Associates and Boston Parks & 
Recreation) 
Pages 76-77 South Falls, Columbus Park, Chicago, Illinois (Chicago Park District Archives, ca. 1938 and author, 

1995) 
Page 78 Polly Pond, Downing Park, Newburgh, New York (LANDSCAPES and Downing Park Planning 

Committee) 

Magnolia Cemetery, Charleston, South Carolina (author, 1994) 

Hay Rake, Ozark National Scenic Riverways (courtesy NPS); Historic Light, Washington Park, Chicago, 
Illinois (author, 1992); Summer Cottage, St. Croix National Scenic Riverway. (courtesy NPS) 
George Washington Parkway, Washington D.C. (HABS) 

"Eagle's Nest," Centerport, Long Island; Wayside Station, Zone", Point Reyes, California; Trail Marker, 
Asheville, North Carolina; Information Kiosk, Central Park, New York, New York, (author) 
Franklin Court and Welcome Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. (VENTURI) 
Dorchester North Burying Ground, Dorchester, Massachusetts; (author, 1993 and Boston Parks) 
Long Meadow, Prospect Park, Brooklyn, New York (Prospect Park Alliance) 
Civic Center, Denver, Colorado (author, 1993) 
Stone Wall (author, 1990) 

Vanderbilt Estate, Hyde Park, New York (LANDSCAPES) 

Commemorative Marker, Robidoux Pass, Oregon Trail, Scotts Bluff National Monument, Nebraska 
(courtesy NPS) 

Historic Wall, Stan Hywet Hall, Akron, Ohio (author, 1993) 
Music Pavilion, Tower Grove Park, St. Louis, Missouri (Tower Grove Park) 
Demolition Plan, Tao House Courtyard, Eugene O'Neill National Historic Site, Danville, California 
(courtesy NPS) 

Footbridge, Central Park, New York (Central Park Conservancy); J. L. Bush Storehouse 
Property, Greenwich, Connecticut (LANDSCAPES) 

Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site, Hyde Park, New York (Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic 
Site and LANDSCAPES) 

Stan Hywet Hall, Akron, Ohio (Stan Hywet Hall Foundation) 
Pages 102-103 Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site, Brookline, Massachusetts (courtesy NPS) 
Page 104 Meadow, Franklin Park, Boston, Massachusetts (FLONHS and Boston Parks & Recreation) 

Page 105 Central Burying Ground, Boston, Massachusetts (Boston Parks and Recreation) 

Pages 106-107 Little Round Top, Gettysburg National Military Park, Pennsylvania (courtesy NPS) 
Page 108 Reynolda Gardens, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina (The Jaeger Group) 

Page 109 Mature American Elm and Japanese Zelkova (author, 1994) 

Page 110 Estate Drive, Apple Orchard, Stan Hywet Hall, Akron, Ohio (Douglas Reed) 

Pages 111-112 Rancho Los Alamitos, Long Beach, California (Rancho Los Alamitos Foundation) 
Page 113 Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Massachesetts (The Halvorson Company) 

Page 115 Garden Walks, Shadows-on-the-Teche, New Iberia, Louisiana (Shadows-on-the-Teche) 

Page 117 Archeology at Joslyn Castle, Omaha, Nebraska (Mary Hughes) 



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Page 119 Garden Gate, Weir Farm National Historic Site, Wilton, Connecticut (courtesy NPS and Weir Farm 

National Historic Site) 
Page 120 Historic Signs, Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Page 121 Historic Street Lights, Speer Boulevard and Downtown, Denver, Colorado (Western History Department, 

Denver Public Library, Foster and Marshall) 
Page 122 Accessibility at Eugene O'Neill National Historic Site, Danville, California (author, 1994) 

Page 123 Accessibility at Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site, Brookline, Massachusetts (courtesy 

NPS) 
Pages 127-129 Conifer Grove (author 1990) 
Page 1 30 South Terrace Garden, Monticello, Charlottesville, Virginia (Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation and 

author, 1996) 
Pages 135-136 Privy Garden Hampton Court, U.K. (author, 1994 and 1995) 
Pages 139-140 Garden Statue (Carol Betsch) 



Vlll 



Introduction 



The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the 
Treatment of Historic Properties and the Guidelines for 
the Treatment of Cultural Landscapes 









The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for 
the Treatment of Historic Properties and the 
Guidelines for the Treatment of Cultural 
Landscapes provide guidance to cultural 
landscape owners, stewards and managers, 
landscape architects, preservation planners, 
architects, contractors, and project reviewers 
prior to and during the planning and 
implementation of project work. 



The Secretary of the Interior is responsible for establishing professional standards and 
providing advice on the preservation of cultural resources listed in or eligible for listing in 
the National Register of Historic Places. In partial fulfillment of this responsibility, the 
Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Historic Preservation Projects were developed 
in 1976. They consisted of seven sets of standards for the acquisition, protection, 
stabilization, preservation, rehabilitation, restoration, and reconstruction of historic 
buildings. 

Since their publication in 1976, the Secretary's Standards have been used by State 
Historic Preservation Officers and the National Park Service to ensure that projects 
receiving federal money or tax benefits were reviewed in a consistent manner nationwide. 
The principles embodied in the Standards have also been adopted by hundreds of 
preservation commissions across the country in local design guidelines. 

In 1 992, the Standards were revised so that they could be applied to all historic resource 
types included in the National Register of Historic Places-buildings, structures, sites, 
objects, districts, and landscapes. The revised Standards were reduced to four sets by 
incorporating protection and stabilization into preservation, and by eliminating 
acquisition, which is no longer considered a treatment. Re-titled The Secretary of the 
Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties, this new, modified version 
addresses four treatments: preservation, rehabilitation, restoration, and reconstruction. 
The Guidelines for the Treatment of Cultural Landscapes illustrate how to apply these 
four treatments to cultural landscapes in a way that meets the Standards. 

Of the four, Preservation standards require retention of the greatest amount of historic 
fabric, including the landscape's historic form, features, and details as they have evolved 
over time. Rehabilitation standards acknowledge the need to alter or add to a cultural 
landscape to meet continuing or new uses while retaining the landscape's historic 
character. Restoration standards allow for the depiction of a landscape at a particular 
time in its history by preserving materials from the period of significance and removing 
materials from other periods. Reconstruction standards establish a framework for re- 
creating a vanished or non-surviving landscape with new materials, primarily for 
interpretive purposes. 

The Secretary of the Interior's Standards forthe Treatment of Historic Properties, revised 
in 1992, were codified as 36 CFR Part 68 in the 12 July 1995 Federal Register (Vol. 60, 
No. 1 33) with an "effective" date of 1 1 August 1 995. The revision replaces the 1 978 and 
1 983 versions of 36 CFR 68 entitled The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Historic 
Preservation Projects. 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Preservation Planning and the Treatment of Cultural Landscapes 



Careful planning prior to treatment can help prevent 
irrevocable damage to a cultural landscape. Professional 
techniques for identifying, documenting, and treating 
cultural landscapes have advanced overthe past twenty- 
five years and are continually being refined. As described 
in the National Park Service publication, Preservation 
Brief #36: Protecting Cultural Landscapes, the 
preservation planning process for cultural landscapes 
should involve: historical research; inventory and 
documentation of existing conditions; site analysis and 
evaluation of integrity and significance; development of a 
cultural landscape preservation approach and treatment 
plan; development of a cultural landscape management 
plan and management philosophy; development of a 
strategy for ongoing maintenance; and, preparation of a 
record of treatment and future research recommendations. 

In all treatments for cultural landscapes, the following 
general recommendations and comments apply: 



M Before undertaking project work, research of a 
cultural landscape is essential. Research findings help 
to identify a landscape's historic period(s) of ownership, 
occupancy and development, and bring greater 
understanding of the associations that make them 
significant. Research findings also provide a foundation 
to make educated decisions for project treatment, and 
can guide management, maintenance, and interpretation. 
In addition, research findings may be useful in satisfying 
compliance reviews (e.g. Section 106 of the National 
Historic Preservation Act as amended). 

M Although there is no single way to inventory a 
landscape, the goal of documentation is to provide a 
record of the landscape as it exists at the present time, 
thus providing a baseline from which to operate. All 
component landscapes and features (see definitions 
below) that contribute to the landscape's historic 
character should be recorded. The level of 
documentation needed depends on the nature and the 
significance of the resource. For example, plant material 



Defining Landscape Terminology 

Character-defining feature - a prominent or distinctive 
aspect, quality, or characteristic of a cultural landscape 
that contributes significantly to its physical character. 
Land use patterns, vegetation, furnishings, decorative 
details and materials may be such features. 

Component landscape - A discrete portion of the 
landscape which can be further subdivided into 
individual features. The landscape unit may contribute 
to the significance of a National Register property, such 
as a farmstead in a rural historic district. In some 
cases, the landscape unit may be individually eligible 
for the National Register of Historic Places, such as a 
rose garden in a large urban park. 

Cultural landscape- a geographic area (including both 
cultural and natural resources and the wildlife or 
domestic animals therein), associated with a historic 
event, activity, or person or exhibiting other cultural or 
aesthetic values. There are four general types of cultural 
landscapes, not mutually exclusive: historic sites, 
historic designed landscapes, historic vernacular 
landscapes, and ethnographic landscapes. 



Ethnographic landscape - a landscape containing a 
variety of natural and cultural resources that associated 
people define as heritage resources. Examples are 
contemporary settlements, sacred religious sites, and 
massive geological structures. Small plant communities, 
animals, subsistence and ceremonial grounds are 
often components. 

Feature -The smallest element(s) of a landscape that 
contributes to the significance and that can be the 
subject of a treatment intervention. Examples include 
a woodlot, hedge, lawn, specimen plant, allee, house, 
meadow or open field, fence, wall, earthwork, pond or 
pool, bollard, orchard, or agricultural terrace. 

Historic character - the sum of all visual aspects, 
features, materials, and spaces associated with a 
cultural landscape's history, i.e. the original 
configuration together with losses and later 
changes. These qualities are often referred to as 
character-defining. 



INTRODUCTION 



documentation may ideally include botanical name or 
species, common name and size. To ensure full 
representation of existing herbaceous plants, care 
should be taken to document the landscape in different 
seasons. This level of research may most often be the 
ideal goal for smaller properties, but may prove 
impractical for large, vernacular landscapes. 

M Assessing a landscape as a continuum through 
history is critical in assessing cultural and historic value. 
By analyzing the landscape, change over time -the 
chronological and physical "layers" of the landscape - 
can be understood. Based on analysis, individual 
features may be attributed to a discrete period of 
introduction, their presence or absence substantiated to 
a given date, and therefore the landscape's significance 
and integrity evaluated. In addition, analysis allows the 
property to be viewed within the context of other cultural 
landscapes. 



H In order for the landscape to be considered 
significant, character-defining features that convey its 
significance in history must not only be present, but they 
also must possess historic integrity. Location, setting, 
design, materials, workmanship, feeling and association 
should be considered in determining whether a 
landscape and its character-defining features possess 
historic integrity. 

P Preservation planning for cultural landscapes 
involves a broad array of dynamic variables. Adopting 
comprehensive treatment and management plans, in 
concert with a preservation maintenance strategy, 
acknowledges a cultural landscape's ever-changing 
nature and the interrelationship of treatment, 
management and maintenance. 



Defining Landscape Terminology 

Historic designed landscape - a landscape that was 
consciously designed or laid out by a landscape 
architect, master gardener, architect, engineer, or 
horticulturist according to design principles, or an 
amateur gardener working in a recognized style or 
tradition. The landscape may be associated with a 
significant person, trend, or event in landscape 
architecture; or illustrate an important development in 
the theory and practice of landscape architecture. 
Aesthetic values play a significant role in designed 
landscapes. Examples include parks, campuses, and 
estates. 

Historic vernacular landscape - a landscape that 
evolved through use by the people whose activities or 
occupancy shaped it. Through social or cultural 
attitudes of an individual, a family, or a community, the 
landscape reflects the physical, biological, and cultural 
character of everyday lives. Function plays a significant 
role in vernacular landscapes. This can be a farm 
complex or a district of historic farmsteads along a river 
valley. Examples include rural historic districts and 
agricultural landscapes. 



Historic site- a landscape significant for its association 
with a historic event, activity or person. Examples 
include battlefields and presidential homes and 
properties. 

Integrity - the authenticity of a property's historic 
identity, evinced by the survival of physical 
characteristics that existed during the property's 
historic or prehistoric period. The seven qualities of 
integrity as defined by the National Register Program 
are location, setting, feeling, association, design, 
workmanship, and materials 

Significance - the meaning or value ascribed to a 
cultural landscape based on the National Register 
criteria for evaluation. It normally stems from a 
combination of association and integrity. 

Treatment - work carried out to achieve a particular 
historic preservation goal. 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 

Some Factors to Consider When Selecting An Appropriate Treatment for a Cultural Landscape Project 

The Standards are neither technical nor prescriptive, but are intended to promote responsible preservation practices that 
help protect our Nation's irreplaceable cultural resources. They cannot be used to make essential decisions about which 
contributing features of a cultural landscape should be retained and which can be changed. But once a spec\f\ctreatment 
is selected, the Standards can provide the necessary philosophical framework for a consistent and holistic approach for 
a cultural landscape project. 

A treatment is a physical intervention carried out to achieve a historic preservation goal -- it cannot be considered in a 
vacuum. There are many practical and philosophical variables that influence the selection of a treatment for a landscape 
(see discussion, pages 4-8). These include, but are not limited to, the extent of historic documentation, existing physical 
conditions, historic value, proposed use, long and short term objectives, operational and code requirements (e.g. 
accessibility, fire, security) and anticipated capital improvement, staffing and maintenance costs. The impact of the 
treatment on any significant archeological and natural resources should also be considered in this decision making 
process. Therefore, it is necessary to consider a broad array of dynamic and interrelated variables in selecting a treatment 
for a cultural landscape preservation project (see sidebar opposite titled, "Preservation Planning and the Treatment of 
Cultural Landscapes.") 



For some cultural landscapes, especially those 
that are best considered ethnographic or heritage 
landscapes, these Guidelines may not apply. 
However, if people working with these properties 
decide that community coherence may be affected 
by physical place and space-or if there is potential 
for loss of landscape character whose significance 
is rooted in the community's activities and 
processes (or other aspects of its history)-this 
guide may be of service. 



M Change and Continuity. There is a balance 
between change and continuity in all cultural 
resources. Change is inherent in cultural 
landscapes; it results from both natural processes 
and human activities. Sometimes that change is 
subtle, barely perceptible as with the geomorpho- 
logical effects on landform. At other times, it is 
strikingly obvious, as with vegetation, either in the 
cyclical changes of growth and reproduction or the 
progressive changes of plant competition and 
succession. This dynamic quality of all cultural 
landscapes is balanced by the continuity of 
distinctive characteristics retained overtime. For, 
in spite of a landscape's constant change (or 
perhaps because of it), a property can still exhibit 
continuity of form, order, use, features, or 
materials. Preservation and rehabilitation 
treatments seek to secure and emphasize 
continuity while acknowledging change. 




A remarkable record of human occupation exists at Canyon de Chelly 
National Monument in Chinle, Arizona-a vast mosaic of human activity 
through time, up to the present-day Navajo. Through preservation, an 
emphasis is placed on the cultural continuum, thus accommodating 
change and continuity, (author, 1996) 



INTRODUCTION 



H Relative Significance in History. A 

cultural landscape may be a significant 
resource as a rare survivor or the work of an 
important landscape architect, horticulturist or 
designer. It may be the site of an important 
event or activity, reflect cultural traditions, or 
other patterns of settlement or land use. This 
significance may be derived from local, regional, 
or national importance. Cultural landscapes 
may be listed in the National Register of Historic 
Places individually or as contributing features in 
a historic district. In some instances, cultural 
landscapes may be designated National 
Historic Landmarks by the Secretary of the 
Interior for their exceptional significance in 
American history. 

H Integrity and Existing Physical 
Condition. Prior to selecting a treatment, it is 
important to understand and evaluate the 
difference between integrity and existing 
conditions. Integrity is the authenticity of a 
cultural landscape's historic identity: it is the 
physical evidence of its significance. Existing 
conditions can be defined as the current 
physical state of the landscape's form, order, 
features and materials. For example, the 
integrity of an abandoned garden may be 
clear based on its extant form, features, and 
materials, but existing conditions may be poor, 
due to neglect or deferred maintenance. 




"Fairsted," in Brookline, Massachusetts, was the home and office of 
Frederick Law Olmsted, Sr., his sons, and his successors from 1883-1979. 
Olmsted is widely recognized as the founder of the profession of landscape 
architecture in the United States. As a historic property, Olmsted's home and 
office, is associated with the firm's work, but it is also significant for its 
landscape which illustrates Olmsted's suburban design principles. The 
property was designated a National Historic Landmark on May 23, 1963. 
(FLO NHS) 




Before a treatment was selected for the Piper Farm atAntietam Battlefield, it was important to understand that the farm complex had a high level of 
integrity for its turn-of-the-century development. In fact, if the landscape was "restored" to the period of the battle, it would have resulted in the removal 
of this farm complex and subsequent loss of significant history. ( author, 1994) 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



M Geographical Context. The 

surroundings of a cultural landscape, 
whether an urban neighborhood or rural 
farming area [see centertop left and right], 
may contribute to its significance and its 
historic character and should be considered 
prior to treatment. The setting may contain 
component landscapes or features (see 
definitions, page 9) which fall within the 
property's historic boundaries. It also may 
be comprised of separate properties 
beyond the landscape's boundaries, and 
perhaps those of the National Register 
listing. The landscape context can include 
the overall pattern of the circulation 
networks, views and vistas into and out of 
the landscape, land use, natural features, 
clusters of structures, and division of 
properties. 

M Use. Historic, current, and proposed 
use of the cultural landscape must be 
considered prior to treatment selection. 
Historic use is directly linked to its 
significance [bottom left], while current and 
proposed use(s) can affect integrity and 
existing conditions. Parameters may vary 
from one landscape to another. For 
example, in one agricultural landscape, 
continuation of the historic use can lead to 
changes in the physical form of a farm to 
accommodate new crops and equipment. 
In another agricultural property, new uses 
may be adapted within the landscape's 
existing form, order and features. 



Two aerial photographs [center top left and right] of 
the changing geographical context at Rancho Los 
Alamitos taken a half century apart, from 
expansive farm lands to suburban subdivision-- is 
eminently clear. This dramatic change to the 
property's context will have an effect on future 
planning and treatment recommendations. (Rancho 
Los Alamitos Foundation) 

Acoma Pueblo, [opposite] located 60 miles west of 
Albuquerque, New Mexico, is one of the oldest, 
continuously inhabited villages in the United 
States, dating back over 1,000 years. Many of its 
historic uses are still evident in the village today as 
reflected by the traditional construction of adobe- 
masonry architecture, outside ovens and 
outhouses, (author, 1996) 

The core of this Anasazi complex at Chaco 
Culture National Historical Park, Bloomfield, New 
Mexico, [opposite page bottom] has been 
preserved and protected since it was designated 
a National Monument in 1907. (courtesy NPS) 

8 




INTRODUCTION 




H Archeological Resources. Prehis- 
toric and historic archeological resources 
may be found in cultural landscapes above 
and below the ground [below] and even 
under water. Examples of prehistoric 
archeological resources include prehis- 
toric mounds built by Native-Americans. 
Examples of historic archeological re- 
sources include remnants of buildings, cliff 
dwellings, and villages; or, features of a 
sunken garden, mining camp, or battlefield. 
These resources not only have historical 
value, but can also reveal significant 
information about a cultural landscape. 
The appropriate treatment of a cultural 
landscape includes the identification and 
preservation of significant archeological 
resources. Many landscape preservation 
projects include a site archeologist. 

M Natural Systems. Cultural land- 
scapes often derive their character from a 
human response to natural features and 
systems. The significance of these natural 
resources may be based on their cultural 
associations and from their inherent 
ecological values. Natural resources form 
natural systems that are interdependent 
on one another and which may extend well 
beyond the boundary of the historic 




GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



property. For example, these systems can 
include geology, hydrology, plant and 
animal habitats, and climate. Some of 
these natural resources are particularly 
susceptible to disturbances caused by 
changes in landscape management. Many 
natural resources such as wetlands or rare 
species fall under local, state, and federal 
regulations which must be considered. 
Since natural resource protection is a 
specialized field distinct from cultural 
landscape preservation, a preservation 
planning team may want to include an 
expert in this area to address specific 
issues or resources found within a cultural 
landscape. Natural systems are an integral 
part of the cultural landscape and must be 
considered when selecting an appropriate 
treatment. 



Invasive plant materials such as Phragmites 
[opposite] have overtaken sections of the water's 
edge along the Emerald Necklace Parks in Boston, 
Massachusetts diminishing the park's historic 
character. While developing a rehabilitation plan for 
the parks, both natural systems and cultural 
resource values are being considered, (author, 
1989) 




ZONE I 

mm SIGNIFICANT CONCENTRATION 



OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPE FEATURES/PATTERNS AND COMPONENT 
HISTORIC FERJODS; THAT POSSESS CULTURAL VALUE, HISTORIC SCENES WITH INTEGRITY 

SIGNIFICANT ETHNOGRAPHIC LANDSCAPES NOT MANAGED BY THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



FROM ALL FIVE 



ZONE II 



IMPORT ANT CULTURAL LANDSCAPE FEATURES/ PATTERN 5 AND 
COMPONENTS FR£M SEVERAL. HISTORIC PERIODS 

IMPORTANT CULTURAL. LANDSCAPE FEATURES NOT 
MANAGED &( THE NATIONAL PAPK SERVICE 
(SPALDING TOWN SITE, CHURCH, CEMETEJ?r ETC) 



ZONE III 

E AREAS OF CULTURAL 
LANDSCAPE VALUE 
CONTRISUTIN6 TO THE 
HISTORIC SCENE 
ASSOCIATED WITH 
AGRICULTURAL US Or 
THE LANDSCAPE OVER. 
SEVERAL HISTOPJC 
PERIODS 

777?, AREAS OF CULTURAL 
VM LANDSCAPE VALUE, 
NOT MANAGED &Y 
THE NATIONAL. PARK 
5ERVICE 



NEZ PERCE NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 
- SPALDING UNIT 



- "- 1 -- ,| t ri* 

f1\ 




The management strategy for Nez Perce National Historical Park, Spalding, Indiana, divides the landscape into management zones that 
considers significant concentrations of cultural landscape features and patterns; representation from historic periods; and the degree of 
integrity, (courtesy NPS) 



10 



INTRODUCTION 





H Management and Maintenance. 

Management strategies are long-term and 
comprehensive. They can be one of the 
means for implementing a landscape 
preservation plan. Maintenance tasks can 
be day-to-day, seasonal, or cyclical, as 
determined by management strategies. 
Although routine horticultural activities, 
such as mowing and weeding, or general 
grounds maintenance, such as re-laying 
pavement or curbs, may appear routine, 
such activities can cumulatively alter the 
character of a landscape. In contrast, well- 
conceived management and maintenance 
activities can sustain character and 
integrity over an extended period. There- 
fore, both the management and 
maintenance of cultural landscapes should 
be considered when selecting a treatment. 

H Interpretation. Interpretation can 
help in understanding and "reading" the 
landscape. The tools and techniques of 
interpretation can include guided walks, 
self-guided brochures, computer-aided 
tours, exhibits, and wayside stations. 
Interpretive goals should compliment 
treatment selection, reflecting the 
landscape's significance and historic 
character. A cultural landscape may 
possess varying levels of integrity or even 
differing periods of significance, both of 
which can result in a multi-faceted 
approach to interpretation. In some cases, 
interpretation and a sound interpretive 
strategy can inform decisions about how to 
treat a landscape. 



The Lord and Burnham greenhouse at Lyndhurst 
in Tarrytown, New York, now stabilized and 
protected is interpreted as a ruin. The 1881- 
structure contributes to the landscape's signifi- 
cance and its future treatment and management 
are an integral part of a current Historic Landscape 
Report. (Lyndhurst archives and author, 1990) 



11 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Special Requirements. Work that 
must be done to meet accessibility, health 
and safety, environmental protection or 
energy efficiency needs is usually not part 
of the overall process of protecting cultural 
landscapes; rather this work is assessed 
for its potential impact on the cultural 
landscape. 

H Accessibility Considerations. It 

is often necessary to make modifications 
to cultural landscapes so that they will be 
in compliance with current accessibility 
code requirements. Accessibility to 
certain cultural landscapes is required by 
three specific Federal laws: the 
Architectural Barriers Act of 1 968, Section 
504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1 973, and 
the Americans With Disabilities Act of 
1990. Federal rules, regulations and 
standards have been developed which 
provide guidance on how to accomplish 
access to historic areas for people with 
disabilities. Work must be carefully 
planned and undertaken so that it does not 
result in the loss of character-defining 
features. The goal is to provide the highest 
level of access with the lowest level of 
impact on the integrity of the landscape. 

■ Health and Safety 

Considerations. In undertaking work on 
cultural landscapes, it is necessary to 
consider the impact that meeting current 
health and safety codes (for example, 
public health, life safety, fire safety, 
electrical, seismic, structural, and building 
codes) will have on character-defining 
features. For example, upgrading utility 
service, storm or sewer drainage systems 
requires trenching which can disturb soils, 
plants and archeological resources. 
Special coordination with the responsible 
code officials at the state, county, or 
municipal level may be required. Securing 
required permits and licenses is best 



To comply with the ADA, an accessibility solution 
was provided for at San Francisco's City Hall. The 
design preserves the historic hedge along the 
building foundation, and conceals the new ramp 
behind a new hedgerow. When viewing the main 
building elevation, the symmetry of the facade and 
its foundation planting have been preserved, 
(author, 1993) 






12 




These unique historic lightposts at a small park in Sausalito, California, have been preserved. An integral part of the project work included a 
code-required upgrade and improvement of the fixtures for energy efficiency, (author, 1993) 



accomplished early in project planning work. It is often 
necessary to look beyond the "letter" of code 
requirements to their underlying purpose; most modern 
codes allow for alternative approaches and reasonable 
variance to achieve compliance. 

H Environmental Protection Requirements. 

Many cultural landscapes are affected by requirements 
that address environmental issues. Legislation at the 
federal, state and municipal level have established rules 
and regulations for dealing with a variety of natural 
resources - including water, air, soil and wildlife. Work 
predicated on such legislation must be carefully planned 
and undertaken so that it does not result in the loss of a 
landscape's character-defining features. Securing 
required permits and licenses should be considered 
early in project work, and special efforts should be made 
to coordinate with public agencies responsible for 
overseeing specific environmental concerns. 



M Energy Efficiency. Some features of a cultural 
landscape, such as buildings, structures, vegetation 
and furnishings, can play an energy-conserving role. 
Therefore, prior to undertaking project work to achieve 
greater energy efficiency, the first step should always be 
to identify and evaluate existing historic features to 
assess their inherent energy conserving potential. If it is 
determined that such work is appropriate, then it needs 
to be carried out with particular care to insure that the 
landscape's historic character is retained. 



13 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Using the Standards and Guidelines for the 
Treatment of Cultural Landscapes 

The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the 
Treatment of Historic Properties are designed to be 
applied to all historic resource types included in the 
National Register of Historic Places-buildings, sites, 
structures, landscapes, districts, and objects. The 
Guidelines for the Treatment of Cultural Landscapes 
apply to a specific resource type: landscapes. 

The Guidelineshave been prepared to assist in applying 
the Standards to all project work involving the treatment 
of cultural landscapes; consequently, they are not 
meant to give case-specific advice or address 
exceptions or rare instances. Therefore, it is 
recommended that the advice of qualified cultural 
landscape preservation professionals be obtained early 
in the planning stage of the project. Such professionals 
may have expertise in landscape architecture, 
landscape history, landscape archeology (ex. pollen 
analysis), forestry, horticulture (ex. pomology, natural 
resources, archeology, architecture, engineering (e.g. 
civil, structural, mechanical, traffic), cultural geography, 
wildlife, ecology, ethnography, interpretation, material 
and object conservation, landscape maintenance and 
management or other related fields. Historians are 
generally part of the specialized team, and bring 
expertise in the history of landscape architecture, 
architecture, art, industry, agriculture, society, etc. 
Project teams are often directed by a landscape 
architect with specific expertise in landscape 
preservation. This is not to say that all cultural 
landscape projects require a team representing all of 
these disciplines. It is recommended that professionals 
in disciplines relevant to the landscapes' inherent 
features be represented. 

The Guidelines apply to cultural landscapes of all types, 
sizes, and materials. The Guidelines begin with an 
overview and description of the larger organizational 
elements of the landscape (spatial organization and land 
patterns), followed by those individual features 
(topography, vegetation, circulation, water features, 
structures, buildings, furnishings, and objects) that may 
contribute to the landscape's historic character. A 
graphic symbol has been assigned to each of these 
organizational elements and character -defining features 
to allow the reader to readily locate a feature at a glance. 
(See pages 18-1 9) 

Each of the four sections of this publication is devoted to 
oneofthefourtreatments: preservation, rehabilitation, 
restoration, and reconstruction. Each section contains 
one set of standards and accompanying guidelines that 



can be used throughout the course of a project. The four 
sections begin with a definition of the treatment, followed 
by the treatment standards, and a brief explanation of the 
philosophical framework from which to make educated 
treatment decisions. The distinct goals that comprise 
each treatment standard, (for example, "Identify, Retain 
and Preserve Historic Materials,") are first discussed in 
narrative form, and are then amplified in parallel 
"Recommended" axl "Not Recommended" 
examples that follow. The sections are illustrated by 
case-study examples of project work, which include 
before and after photographs, historic documentation, 
plans, sections, perspectives and other illustrative 
materials. 

The actions and techniques that are consistent with the 
Secretary of the Interior's "Standards for the Treatment 
of Historic Properties" are listed in the "Recom- 
mended" column on the left; those which are 
inconsistent with the Standards are listed in the "Not 
Recommended" column on the right. These examples 
serve to illustrate a variety of applications to project work; 
not every possible alternative can be included. Therefore, 
the Standards and Guidelines narrative introducing each 
section should be used as a model process to follow 
when considering and evaluating a particular cultural 
landscape and its potential compatibility with a 
particular treatment. 

Finally, the publication concludes with two appendices. 
The first contains an annotated bibliography of selected 
readings in the areas of preservation planning and 
treatment. The second provides a directory of national 
organizations that can assist in the protection of cultural 
landscapes. 



14 



INTRODUCTION 



Organization of the Guidelines 



Cultural landscapes are composed of a collection of features which are organized in space. They include small-scale 
features such as individual fountains or statuary, as well as patterns of fields and forest which define the spatial character 
of the landscape. Individual features in the landscape should never be viewed in isolation, but in relationship to the 
landscape as a whole. Each situation may vary, and some features may often be more important than others. For 
example, circulation may be an important historic element in one landscape, while in another it may have little if any 
significance. 

Overall, it is the arrangement and the interrelationship of these character-defining features as they existed during the 
period of significance that is most critical to consider prior to treatment. As such, landscape features should always 
be assessed as they relate to the property as a whole. Thus, spatial organization and land patterns are always listed 
first in each section of the Guidelines. 




Organizational Elements of the Landscape 

Spatial Organization and Land Patterns 
refers to the three-dimensional organiza- 
tion and patterns of spaces in a 
landscape, like the arrangement of rooms 
in a house. Spatial organization is created 
by the landscape's cultural and natural features. Some 
form visual links or barriers (such as fences and 
hedgerows); others create spaces and visual 
connections in the landscape (such as topography and 
open water). The organization of such features defines 
and creates spaces in the landscape and often is 
closely related to land use. Both the functional and 
visual relationship between spaces is integral to the 
historic character of a property. In addition, it is 
important to recognize that spatial relationships may 
change overtime due to a variety of factors, including: 
environmental impacts (e.g. drought, flood), plant 
growth and succession, and changes in land use or 
technology. 




Vegetation features may be individual 
plants, as in the case of a specimen tree, 
or groups of plants such as a hedge, 
allee, agricultural field, planting bed, ora 
naturally-occurring plant community or 
habitat. Vegetation includes evergreen or deciduous 
trees, shrubs, and ground covers, and both woody and 
herbaceous plants. Vegetation may derive its 
significance from historical associations, horticultural or 
genetic value, or aesthetic orfunctional qualities. It is a 
primary dynamic component of the landscape's 
character; therefore, the treatment of cultural 
landscapes must recognize the continual process of 
germination, growth, seasonal change, aging, decay, 
and death of plants. The character of individual plants is 
derived from habit, form, color, texture, bloom, fruit, 
fragrance, scale and context. 



Character-Defining Features of the Landscape 

There are many character-defining features that 
collectively contribute to the historic character of a 
cultural landscape. These are as follows: 



Topography, the shape of the ground 
plane and its height or depth, is a 
character-defining feature of the land- 
scape. Topography may occur naturally 
or as a result of human manipulation. For 
example, topographic features may contribute to the 
creation of outdoor spaces, serve a functional purpose, 
or provide visual interest. 




Circulation features may include, roads, 
parkways, drives, trails, walks, paths, 
parking areas, and canals. Such features 
may occur individually or be linked to form 
networks or systems. The character of 
circulation features is defined by factors such as 
alignment, width, surface and edge treatment, grade, 
materials, and infrastructure. 





Water features may be aesthetic as well 
as functional components of the 
landscape. They may be linked to the 
natural hydrologic system or may be fed 
artificially; their associated watersupply, 
arainage, and mechanical systems are important 
components. Water features include fountains, pools, 
cascades, irrigation systems, ponds, lakes, streams, 
and aqueducts. The characteristics of water features 



15 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 

and reflective qualities; and associated plant and animal 
life, as well as water quality. Special consideration may 
be required due to the seasonal changes in water such 
as variations in water table, precipitation, and freezing. 




Structures, site furnishings, and objects 
may contribute to a landscape's 
significance and historic character. 
Structures are non-habitable, con- 
structed features, unlike buildings which 
have walls and roofs and are generally habitable. 
Structures may be significant individually or they may 
simply contribute to the historic character of the 
landscape. They may include walls, terraces, arbors, 
gazebos, follies, tennis courts, playground equipment, 
greenhouses, cold frames, steps, bridges, and dams. 
The placement and arrangement of buildings and 
structures are important to the character of the 
landscape; these guidelines emphasize the relationship 
between buildings, structures, and otherfeatures which 
comprise the historic landscape. For additional and 
specific guidance related to the treatment of historic 
buildings, please consult the Guidelines for Preserving, 
Rehabilitating, Restoring and Reconstructing Historic 
Buildings. 

Site furnishings and objects generally are small-scale 
elements in the landscape that may be functional, 
decorative, or both. They can include benches, lights, 
signs, drinking fountains, trash receptacles, fences, tree 
grates, clocks, flagpoles, sculpture, monuments, 
memorials, planters, and urns. They may be movable, 
used seasonally, or permanently installed. Site 
furnishings and objects occur as singular items, in 
groups of similar or identical features, or as part of a 
system (e.g. signage). They may be designed or built for 
a specific site, available though a catalog, or created as 
vernacular pieces associated with a particular region or 
cultural group. They may be significant in their own right, 
for example, as works of art or as the work of an important 
designer. 



16 



Standards for Preservation <%j 

Guidelines for Preserving Cultural Landscapes 










When the property's distinctive 
materials, features, and spaces 
are essentially intact and thus 
convey the historic significance 
without extensive repair or 
replacement; when depiction at 
a particular period of time is not 
appropriate; and when a 
continuing or new use does not 
require additions or extensive 
alterations, preservation may be 
considered as a treatment. Prior 
to undertaking work, a 
documentation plan for 
preservation should be 
developed. 




Standards for Preservation 



Preservation is defined as the act or 
process of applying measures necessary to 
sustain the existing form, integrity, and 
materials of an historic property. Work, 
including preliminary measures to protect 
and stabilize the property, generally 
focuses upon the ongoing maintenance 
and repair of historic materials and features 
rather than extensive replacement and new 
construction. New exterior additions are 
not within the scope of this treatment; 
however, the limited and sensitive upgrad- 
ing of mechanical, electrical, and plumbing 
systems and other code-required work to 
make properties functional is appropriate 
within a preservation project. 



1. A property will be used as it was historically, or be given a new use that 
maximizes the retention of distinctive materials, features, spaces, and spatial 
relationships. Where a treatment and use have not been identified, a property 
will be protected and, if necessary, stabilized until additional work may be 
undertaken. 

2. The historic character of a property will be retained and preserved. The 
replacement of intact or repairable historic materials or alteration of features, 
spaces, and spatial relationships that characterize a property will be avoided. 

3. Each property will be recognized as a physical record of its time, place, and 
use. Work needed to stabilize, consolidate, and conserve existing historic 
materials and features will be physically and visually compatible, identifiable 
upon close inspection, and properly documented for future research. 

4. Changes to a property that have acquired historic significance in their own 
right will be retained and preserved. 

5. Distinctive materials, features, finishes, and construction techniques or 
examples of craftsmanship that characterize a property will be preserved. 

6. The existing condition of historic features will be evaluated to determine the 
appropriate level of intervention needed. Where the severity of deterioration 
necessitates repair or limited replacement of a distinctive feature, the new 
material will match the old in composition, design, color, and texture. 

7. Chemical or physical treatments, if appropriate, will be undertaken using the 
gentlest means possible. Treatments that cause damage to historic materials 
will not be used. 



8. Archeological resources will be protected and preserved in place. If such 
resources must be disturbed, mitigation measures will be undertaken. 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Introduction 

ri Preservation, the options for replacement are 
limited. The expressed goal of the Standards for 
Preservation and Guidelines for Preserving 
Cultural Landscapes is retention of the landscape's 
existing form, features and materials, provided that such 
actions will not result in a degraded landscape condition 
or threaten historic resources. 

Preservation treatments may be as simple as basic 
maintenance of existing materials and features, such as 
the upkeep of a pedestrian path with a topcoat of crushed 
shells, or may be more involved; for example, preparing 
a cultural landscape report, undertaking laboratory 
testing (e.g. pollen analysis to identify past uses of the 
property or hiring conservators to perform sensitive work 
(e.g. repointing a serpentine garden wall). In all cases, 
protection, maintenance, and repair are emphasized, 
while replacement is minimized. 



H Identify, Retain, and 
Materials and Features 



Preserve Historic 



The guidance for the treatment Preservation begins 
with recommendations to identify the form and detailing 
of those features and materials that are important to the 
landscape's historic character and which must be 
retained in order to preserve that character. Therefore, 
guidance on identifying, retaining, and preserving 
character-defining features is always given first. The 
character of a cultural landscape is defined by its spatial 
organization and land patterns; features such as 
topography, vegetation, and circulation; and materials, 
such as an embedded aggregate pavement. 



Section 
Through A 




•<Kji: 

1 


7^— 




Mount Vernon Memonal Highway was one of the first major roadways to be lighted 
throughout its entire length. An ornate metal light standard was used m the more 
formally landscaped section between Washington and Alexandria, while a rustic 
cedar light pole was employed from Alexandna to Mount Vernon to harmonize wrlh 
the wooded landscape of the lower parkway. The cost of operating this extensive 
lighting system proved prohibitive The cedar posts and most of the original metal 
Standards have been removed. 

When constructed. Mount Vernon Memorial Highway was lined with a large amount 
of ruspc wood guaid rail constiucted of black locust logs. High guard rails were 
used in potentially dangerous areas and low rails were used to prevent cars from 
parking along the roadway. Though treated with multiple coats of protective stain, 
The original guard rails did not weather well. Most have been replaced by steel- 
backed, pressure-treated timber safety barriers. 

The rustic wood bus shelters were an unusual feature, since most parkways 
prohibited bus traffic Three slightly different rustic designs were developed to 
provide variety and harmonize with the parkway setting. These high-maintenance 
structures were eventually removed. 





Memorial Bridge to Alexandna- 
A Asphalt pa vement 
B Concrete curb 
C Door opening 
.Steel anchor rods 



Alexandria to Mount Vernon: 

E Reinforced concrete pavement 

F Rustic guard rail 

G 3' Cedar crib brace 

H Transformer vault 




Historic road details were inventoried and documented along the George Washington Memorial Parkway where two light standards were used: an 
ornate metal post for more formally landscaped areas between Washington D. C. and Alexandria, Virginia, while a rustic cedar pole was employed 
from Alexandria to Mount Vernon to harmonize with its setting. (HABS, 1994) 



20 



PRESERVATION GUIDELINES 
Stabilize and Protect Deteriorated Historic Features and Materials as a Preliminary Measure 



Features within a cultural landscape may 
need to be stabilized or protected through 
preliminary measures until additional work 
can be undertaken. Stabilization may 
include structural reinforcement of a rustic 
pergola, cabling of a tree, weatherization of 
a wooden garden bench, or correcting 
unsafe conditions. This work should 
always be carried out in such a mannerthat 
it detracts as little as possible from the 
cultural landscape's appearance. Although 
it may not be necessary in every 
preservation project, stabilization is 
nonetheless an integral part of the 
treatment Preservation, it is equally 
applicable, if circumstances warrant, for 
the other treatments. Protection generally 
involves the leastdegree of intervention and 
is preparatory to other work. Such actions 
would include the installation of temporary 
fencing around significant plant materials or 
the electrical grounding of a tree. 







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applied to a limb that overhangs a pedestrian walk at the Alamo, San Antonio, 
Texas, (author, 1993) 











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Taro patches are small hand-cultivated ponds, usually established as separate properties at the time of the Great Mahele or land division in the 1850s. 
In 1 994, in an effort to protect this declining land use, the County of Maui, Hawaii, passed an ordinance granting tax relief to properties in taro production, 
(author, 1995) 



21 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Maintain Historic Features and Materials 



After identifying, protecting and stabilizing 
those features and materials that are 
important and must be retained, 
maintaining them becomes important. 
For example, maintenance includes 
treatments such as removing rust from an 
iron light standard, repointing a stone 
footbridge, re-application of protective 
coatings on a wooden patio deck; pruning 
to maintain the form of a hedge [see 
opposite]; monitoring the age, health and 
vigor of plant materials; or the cyclical 
cleaning of drainage inlets. As a 
foundation for these decisions, an overall 
evaluation of a cultural landscape's 
existing conditions should always begin at 
this level. 




At the Irwin Miller House, Columbus, Indiana, the integrity of the original design by 
landscape architect Dan Kiley has been preserved by respecting the original design 
intent and maintaining the height of the hedges at 8'-6". (author, 1995) 




A contract with a modern concessionaire maintains some active fishing at a former family-owned operation, the Hokenson Brothers Fishery in 
Apostle Islands National Seashore, Wisconsin, (courtesy NPS) 



22 



PRESERVATION GUIDELINES 




This character-defining avenue of oaks in Forsyth Park, Savannah, Georgia, 
have been pruned to lighten their canopy, thus providing protection from 
severe storms, (author, 1996) 



Repair (Stabilize, Consolidate and Conserve) Historic Features and Materials 



When the existing conditions of character- 
defining features and materials requires 
additional work, theirrepa/ris recommended. 
Preservation strives to retain the maximum 
amount of existing materials and features while 
utilizing as little new material as possible. 
Consequently, guidance for repairing a historic 
feature, such as vegetation, begins with the 
least degree of intervention possible, such as 
pruning a tree to lighten its canopy [see 
opposite]; or, in some cases, pruning back a 
shrub to the ground to encourage vigorous and 
healthy new growth. Similarly, within the 
treatment Preservation, portions of a 
historical structural system could be reinforced 
using contemporary materials. A capstone on 
a retaining wall, or a board in a wooden 
walkway, may be repaired with contemporary 
replacement parts. In all cases, work should be 
non-destructive, physically and visually 
compatible, and documented for future 
research. 



M Limited Replacement In Kind of 
Extensively Deteriorated Portions of 
Historic Features 

If repair by retention of an entire historicfeature 
and/or its historic materials proves impossible, 
the next level of intervention involves {delimited 
replacement in kind of portions of historic 
features when there are surviving prototypes. 
For example, this might involve replacing 
dead shrubs in a bank planting with same- 
genus, species/variety shrubs; or, replacing 
missing fence members to match surviving 
components. The replacement material should 
match the historic both physically and visually. 
In all cases, substitute materials are not 
appropriate in the treatment Preservation. 
However, exceptions would include hidden 
structural reinforcement, new mechanical 
system components (ex. adding irrigation), and 
the lack of availability or hazardous nature of 
original materials. For example, when 
matching plant materials are no longer 
commercially available, may not be hardy to a 
region, or, are highly disease prone, substitute 
plants may be recommended. In these cases, 
it is important that all new 




Castings were made to replace a limited number of lost finials along the 
perimeter fence of Lafayette Square, St. Louis, Missouri, (author, 1994) 



23 



material be non-destructive, identified, and 
properly documented for future research. 
Generally, in Preservation, substitute 
materials should be avoided, unless in-kind 
replacement is not possible. 

M Accessibility Considerations/Health 
and Safety Considerations/Environmen- 
tal Considerations and Energy Effi- 
ciency 

These sections of the Preservation guidance 
address work done to meet accessibility 
requirements; health and safety code; 
environmental requirements; or limited retrofit- 
ting measures to improve energy efficiency. 
Although this work is quite often an important 
aspect of preservation projects, it is usually not 
part of the overall process of protecting, 
stabilizing, conserving, or repairing character- 
defining features; rather, such work is 
assessed for its potential negative impact on 
the landscape's character. For this reason, 
particular care must be taken not to obscure, 
damage, or destroy character-defining materi- 
als or features in the process of undertaking 
work to meet code and energy requirements. 



This easily-reversible accessibility solution has been 
installed at Mission San Jose, San Antonio, Texas, 
(author, 1994) 




24 



Guidelines for 

Preserving Cultural Landscapes 









GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 




FRAMED VISTA -1- 

While pedestrians or carnage occupants could 
easily enjoy lateral views, motorists had to 
continually watch where they were going. 
As speeds increased, the emphasis on forward 
views became increasingly important Parkway 
designers frequently combined a bend in the road 
with a break in the bordering vegetation to frame 
scenes off the mam axis of the parkway. These 
"windows" were deliberately limited in width and 
number to avoid creating prolonged distractions. 

GWMP designers employed this technique in 
dramatic fashion along the Potomac Palisades, 
where southbound motorists are treated to 
striking views of Washington, D C 



PANORAMA 2- 

Parkway designers considered the relationship 
between the road and Washington's monumental 
core to be a matter of great aesthetic and 
symbolic significance The approach to 
Washington was designed to provide a simple yet 
dignified transition between the informal parkway 
landscape and the grand spaces and neoclassical 
monumentally of the national capital 

Border plantings were kept to a minimum in order 
to provide expansive views across the Potomac 
River. The circulation system of Columbia Is/and 
was designed in part to slow down motorists so 
they would appreciate these views at a more 
dignified pace When the parkway was originally 
built, the heights near National Airport provided 
another panoramic view of the city, but the 
roadway was moved to lower ground when the 
airport was constructed 

AXIAL VIEW -3- 

The use of long straight avenues to direct 
attention to objects of interest was another 
classic design technique employed by parkway 
builders This tactic was used sparingly, since 
the parkway was designed primarily as an 
informal landscape with continuous sweeping 
curvature and irregular naturalistic planting 

The most striking use of the classic axial view 
occurs just north of Alexandria, where one of the 
parkway's two long straight stretches points 
directly at the distant Washington Monument 
Tall rows of trees on either side of the parkway 
help focus the motorist's gaze while screening 
out surrounding development This "Monument 
Vista " provides the first suggestion of formal 
Washington It was strongly emphasized in the 
original parkway plans 



SCENIC PULLOUT 4- 

Small parking areas were provided at particularly 
scenic areas to provide motorists with an 
opportunity to safely pull off the roadway and 
enjoy the view These scenic pullouts range in 
s/ze from minor pavement widemngs to 
extensively developed picnic areas complete with 
toilet facilities, tables, fireplaces, and interpretive 
signs explaining the adjacent historic and natural 
features 



The Hi/lcrest overlook provides an excellent view 
across the Potomac to Fort Washington, an 
imposing edifice that guarded the southern 
approach to Washington from 1808-1922. 



. Anna Marcom-Betka, 1994 



PLANNED VIEW 



Early motor parkway designers faced the challenge of adapting 
traditional landscape architecture methods to the new speeds and 
scale produced by automobiles The influence of romantic 
landscape painting and picturesque park design remained strong, 
but landscape compositions were simplified to be appreciated at 
higher speeds The ability of automobiles to easily cover distances 
and climb hills gave parkway designers greater ability to seek out 
attractive scenery and dramatic viewpoints GWMP's designers 
combined this new freedom with traditional design techniques to 
provide access to spectacular scenery and focus attention on 
dramatic views and symbolic vistas 



"The automobile has made a 



lugh bordering woods c 






id planting must be stronger because of 
-Charles W EliQtll, Landscape Architecture Quarterly 1922 



Scale 1" = 40' , 1 480 
O 40 80 120 FEET W 20 40 METERS 



N 
G 





Potomac Pall i sad es 





Columbia bland 




Washington Monument Vista, Alexandria 




Hillcrest Overlook 



Early parkway designers faced the challenge of adapting traditional landscape architecture methods to the new speeds and scale demanded 
by automobiles. The identification and protection of historic planned views along the George Washington Memorial Parkway is an integral part 
of the parkway documentation project. (HABS, 1994) 



26 



PRESERVATION GUIDELINES 



SPATIAL ORGANIZATION AND LAND PATTERNS 
Identify, Retain, and Preserve Historic Materials and Features 



Recommended 



Not Recommended 



Identifying, retaining and preserving the existing spatial 
organization and land patterns of the landscape as they 
have evolved over time. Prior to beginning project work, 
documenting all features which define those relation- 
ships. This includes the size, configuration, proportion 
and relationship of component landscapes; the 
relationship of features to component landscapes; and 
the component landscapes themselves, such as a 
terrace garden, a farmyard, or forest-to-field patterns. 



Undertaking project work without understanding the 
effect on existing spatial organization and land patterns. 
For example, constructing a new structure without 
researching a property's agricultural and development 
history which may have created new spatial divisions. 



Stabilize and Protect Deteriorated Historic Materials 
and Features as a Preliminary Measure 



Stabilizing deteriorated features that define spatial 
organization and land patterns, such as a deteriorating 
structure that separates a courtyard garden and a 
kitchen garden; a hedgerow along a farm's perimeter 
which has an insect infestation; or a collapsing dry stone 
wall along a scenic parkway. 



Failing to undertake stabilization measures for 
deteriorating orfragile features, such as a cluster of farm 
outbuildings or an industrial complex, causing the loss of 
spatial definition and land patterns. 



Protecting spatial organization and land patterns that 
extend beyond a landscape. Utilizing preservation tools 
such as acquisition, zoning, scenic and conservation 
easements. 



Allowing spatial organization and land patterns to be 
altered through incompatible development or neglect. 




The addition of this war memorial to the Civic Center in downtown Denver, Colorado, compromised the character-defining visual and spatial 
relationships of S. R. DeBoer's 1924 design for the plaza, (author, 1993) 

27 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Maintain Historic Features and Materials 



Maintaining spatial organization and land patterns by 
non-destructive methods in daily, seasonal and cyclical 
tasks. For example, maintaining topography, vegetation 
and structures which define individual spaces or the 
overall pattern of the cultural landscape. 



Failing to undertake preventive maintenance such as 
keeping volunteertree and forest growth from spreading 
into open fields or meadows. 

Utilizing maintenance methods which destroy or 
obscure the landscape's spatial organization and land 
patterns. 



Repair Historic Features and Materials 



Repairing spatial organization and land patterns by use 
of non-destructive methods and materials when 
additional work is required. For example, repairing 
structures, reclaiming open space from woody plant 
intrusion, or replanting vegetation to recapture the 
individual spaces or overall patterns of the cultural 
landscape. 



Failing to undertake necessary repairs or remedial ac- 
tion, resulting in the loss of spatial organization and 
land patterns. 

Replacing a feature that defines spatial organization and 
land patterns when repair is possible. 




1_J "^£ig££te 

When historic land uses cannot be continued, maintenance practices, such as mowing or prescribed burns, may be used to prevent the 
succession of old fields. This image depicts the results of such a cyclical maintenance action in Arkansas. (NPS, 1996) 



28 



PRESERVATION GUIDELINES 



Limited Replacement In Kind 
of Extensively Deteriorated Portions of Historic Features 



Replacing in-kind deteriorating or missing parts of 
significant features that define spatial organization and 
land patterns. For example, replacing leaching tanks 
which define the interior spaces of a mining complex. 



Failing to undertake the necessary in-kind replacements 
which may compromise the spatial organization and 
land patterns. 



TOPOGRAPHY 
Identify, Retain, and Preserve Historic Features and Materials 

Recommended Not Recommended 



Identifying, retaining and preserving existing topography. 
Documenting topographic variation prior to project work, 
including shape, slope, elevation, aspect, and contour. 
For example, preparing a topographic survey. 



Executing project work that impacts topography without 
undertaking a topographic survey. 



Evaluating and understanding the evolution of a 
landscape's topography over time. Using archival 
resources such as plans and aerial photographs or, in 
their absence, archeological analysis techniques, to 
understand the historic topography. 



Executing project work without understanding its impact 
on historic topographic resources, such as watershed 
systems. 




The landscape at Drayton Hall in Charleston, South Carolina, reflects seven generations of family ownership. This circular topographic addition 
along the approach road has been preserved. Future research is now underway to understand its date of introduction and the design intent, 
(author, 1994) 

29 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 

Stabilize and Protect Deteriorated Historic Features and Materials 
as a Preliminary Measure 



Stabilizing and protecting topography in a mannerthat is 
appropriate to the character of the landform. For 
example, installing a temporary protective textile over an 
eroding slope or restricting access to fragile earthworks. 



Allowing unstable topographic conditions to deteriorate 
without intervention. For example, permitting pedestrian 
access to further degrade threatened landforms. 



Maintain Historic Features and Materials 



Maintaining historic topography by use of non- 
destructive methods and daily, seasonal, and cyclical 
tasks. This may include cleaning drainage systems, 
mowing vegetative cover or managing groundhogs. 



Failing to undertake preventive maintenance. 

Utilizing maintenance methods which destroy or 
degrade topography, such as using heavily weighted 
equipment on steep orvulnerable slopes. 



Repair Historic Features and Materials 



Repair declining topographic features. For example, re- 
excavating a silted swale through appropriate regrading 
or re-establishing an eroding terrace. 



Destroying the shape, slope, elevation aspect, or 
contour of topography when repair is possible. 







To stabilize the earthworks at Fort Fisher in Petersburg, North Carolina, access has now been restricted to the fragile fort. A parking lot and 
trench area have been removed [see black areas] and stormwater runoff from local roads have been redirected. (NPS, 1989) 



30 



PRESERVATION GUIDELINES 



Limited Replacement In Kind 
of Extensively Deteriorated Portions of Historic Features 



Utilizing a replacement material that does not match the 
historic material when the historic material is available. 
For example, using asphaltic materials to fill in natural 
sink holes in a turfed or soil area. 



Replacing in-kind topographic features where there is 
extensive deterioration and damage. For example, minor 
filling and soil rejuvenation in areas of subsidence. 



VEGETATION 
Identify, Retain, and Preserve Historic Features and Materials 

Recommended Not Recommended 



Identifying, retaining, and preserving existing vegetation; 
for example, woodlands, forests, trees, shrubs, crops, 
meadows, planting beds, vines, and ground covers. 
Documenting broad cover types, genus, species, 
caliper, and/or size, as well as color, scale, form and 
texture. 



Undertaking project work that impacts vegetation 
without executing an "existing conditions" survey of plant 
materials. 



Evaluating the condition and determining the age of 
vegetation prior to project work. For example, tree coring 
to determine age. 



Undertaking work without understanding the signifi- 
cance of vegetation. For example, removing roadside 
trees for utility installations or indiscriminate clearing of 
vegetation. 



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To provide a basis for later treatment decisions, the existing vegetation within the 
core area of the Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site in Hyde Park, New York, 
have been inventoried and analyzed. This plan illustrates change in the specimen 
tree canopy from 1938-1991. For example, lost trees are shown with a black circle, 
while trees that were introduced are depicted with an "x." (LANDSCAPES, 1992) 

A large Osage orange (Madura pomifera) at the Arkansas Post National Memorial 
needs to be cored to establish its age. (courtesy NPS) 



31 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Retaining and perpetuating vegetation through 
propagation using methods such as seed collection 
and genetic stock cuttings from existing plants to 
preserve the gene pool.. 



Failing to propagate vegetation from extant genetic 
stock, when few or no known sources of replacement are 
available. 



Stabilize and Protect Deteriorated Historic Features and Materials 
as a Preliminary Measure 



Stabilizing vegetation by staking, cabling, reinforcing, 
or other appropriate methods. For example, cabling a 
tree or limb to protect it against breakage from wind, 
ice, snow, or age. 



Failing to stabilize threatened vegetation. For 
example, permitting the effects of severe weather 
conditions to damage or destroy vulnerable plant 
materials. 



Stabilizing vegetation that serves to protect historic or 
archeological resources. 



Removing vegetation from earthworks with subsur- 
face archeological resources or removing large trees 
that shield marble burial markers from the effects of 
acid rain. 



Protecting vegetation by controlling invasive or 
inappropriate volunteer plant materials. For example, 
utilizing mechanized removal, pruning, or approved 
herbicides. 



Allowing invasive vegetation to thrive, leading to the 
damage and demise of historic vegetation. 



Protecting below-ground root systems from soil 
compaction or protecting tree trunks and limbs from 
damage by equipment such as mowers, weed wackers 
and plows. 



Failing to provide adequate barriers or alternative 
routes to protect, significant vegetation from 
pedestrian, vehicular and heavy equipment traffic. 



Maintain Historic Materials and Features 



Maintaining historic vegetation by use of non- 
destructive methods and daily, seasonal, and cyclical 
tasks. This may include spring fertilizing, winter 
mulching or mowing an open field after it has gone to 

Utilizing maintenance practices which respect habit, 
form, bloom, fruit and color. 



Failing to undertake preventive maintenance of 
vegetation. 



Utilizing maintenance practices and techniques that 
fail to recognize the uniqueness of individual plant 
materials. For example, rotating crops on an 
inappropriate schedule, or pruning plants which should 
be left "natural" into "shapes." 



Utilizing historic horticultural and agricultural mainte- 
nance practices when those techniques are critical to 
preserving the historic character of the vegetation. For 
example, utilizing a specific mowing pattern at a country 
estate. 



Employing modern practices when traditional or 
historic can be used. For example, using a modern 
textile to control weed growth when a natural material 
that was used historically is available. 



Rejuvenating vegetation by corrective pruning, deep 
root watering orfertilizing, aerating soil, and/or grafting 
onto historic genetic stock. 



Replacing or destroying vegetation when rejuvena- 
tion is possible. For example, removing a deformed 
and damaged plant when corrective pruning may be 
employed. 



32 



PRESERVATION GUIDELINES 





Preservation principles in the Standards have parallels world wide. This tree in a public park in Warsaw, Poland, [top left] was protected 
and stabilized following a recent storm, (author, 1994) Pampas grass, as depicted in this 1858 engraving, [ top center] was often used as 
a bedding plant. Along the monumental core in Washington, DC, some of the beds have been replaced in-kind [ top right] as a result of 
their easy availability in the nursery trade. 

Stabilize and Protect Deteriorated Historic Features and Materials 
as a Preliminary Measure 



Stabilizing and protecting circulation features by 
temporary shoring methods until more permanent 
methods can be undertaken. For example, installing a 
temporary timber retaining wall or gabions to halt 
erosion until a permanent solution can be determined. 



Failing to provide stabilization to circulation features. 
For example, allowing erosion from an unstable slope to 
cover a drive, ultimately resulting in a new alignment. 



Protecting circulation features and materials by 
monitoring use. For example, restricting access to a 
prehistoric trail during periods of peak rainfall, or 
restricting high speed traffic from a leisure drive or 
parkway. 



Failing to control the volume and intensity of use on 
circulation systems that results in damage or loss of 
features or materials. For example, allowing heavy 
loads on a historic trail. 



Limited Replacement In Kind of Historic Features 



Replacing in-kind a single plant or an entire plant 
grouping when the vegetation is too deteriorated or 
damaged to be saved. For example, infilling an individual 
plant in a windbreak, or perennials in a border, with 
historically appropriate plant materials. 



Replacing vegetation that is beyond repair with new 
material when the historic plant is available. 



33 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 





As part of a preservation project, the walks around Boston's Jamaica Pond Park were repaired and resurfaced. A loose, crushed stone surface 
material (an embedded aggregate) was rolled into the asphalt surface, thus allowing for upgraded uses such as jogging, biking and snow 
removal, while retaining the historic character. (FLONHS and author, 1990) 



34 



PRESERVATION GUIDELINES 



C IRCULATION 
Identify, Retain, and Preserve Historic Features and Materials 



Recommended 



Not Recommended 



Identifying, retaining, and preserving the existing 
circulation systems prior to project work. All circulation 
features should be documented, from small paths and 
walks to larger transportation corridors such as 
parkways, highways, railroads and canals, as well as 
alignment, surface and edge treatment, width, grade, 
materials and infrastructure. 



Executing project work that impacts circulation 
systems without undertaking an "existing conditions" 
survey. 



Evaluating the existing condition and determining the 
age of circulation systems. For example, utilizing aerial 
photographs and historic maps to date the introduction 
of carriage roads in an expanding rural cemetery. 



Undertaking work without understanding the impor- 
tance of circulation systems. For example, closing off 
historic roads and removing others, thus altering the 
historic circulation patterns in a fishing village. 



Maintain Historic Materials and Features 



Maintaining circulation systems through non-destruc- 
tive methods in daily, seasonal and cyclical tasks. 
This may include hand raking, top dressing, or rolling 
surface materials. 



Failing to undertake preventive maintenance of 
circulation features and materials. For example, 
using a snow plow across a coarse textured 
pavement. 



Using materials such as salts and chemicals that can 
hasten the deterioration of surface treatments. 



Utilizing maintenance practices that respect infra- 
structure. For example, cleaning out debris from 
drainage systems. 



Allowing infrastructure to become dysfunctional. For 
example, permitting a failed drainage system to 
contribute to the degradation and loss of associated 
road surface. 



Repair Historic Materials and Features 



Repairing surface treatment, materials and edges. 
For example, by applying a traditional material to a 
stabilized subsurface base or patching a railroad 
corridor retaining wall. 



Replacing or destroying circulation features and 
materials when repair is possible. For example, 
removing damaged curbing that could be repaired 
during a road repaving project. 



Limited Replacement In Kind 
of Extensively Deteriorated Portions of Historic Features 



Replacing in-kind circulation features or materials 
when they are too deteriorated or damaged to be 
repaired. For example, replacing a worn cinder path 
with a new material that matches the old in 
composition, design, color and texture. 



Removing circulation features that are beyond repair 
when the historic feature or material is available. For 
example, installing new drainage inlets when the 
historic prototype survives. 



35 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 




In the 1980s, Star Lake in Lower Onondaga Park in Syracuse, New York, was filled-in without undertaking any research or analysis. This loss 
of this character-defining feature significantly altered the park's spatial relationships. (Onondaga County Historical Society and author, 1989) 



36 



PRESERVATION GUIDELINES 



WATER FEATURES 



Identify, Retain, and Preserve Historic Features and Materials 

Recommended Not Recommended 



Identifying, retaining and preserving existing water 
features and water sources such as retention ponds, 
pools, and fountains. Documenting shape, edge and 
bottom condition/material; water level, movement, 
sound and reflective qualities; and associated plants 
and animal life and water quality prior to work. 

Evaluating the condition and, where applicable the 
evolution of water features over time. For example, 
assessing water quality and/or utilizing archeological 
techniques to determine the changing path of a 
watercourse 



Undertaking project work that impacts water features or 
hydrology, without undertaking an "existing conditions" 
survey. For example, filling in a pool that provides 
habitat for rare or endangered wildlife. 



Executing project work without understanding its 
impact on water features. For example, placing a 
section of stream in a culvert or channel. 



Stabilize and Protect Deteriorated Historic Features and Materials 
as a Preliminary Measure 



Stabilizing water features by consolidating or 
reinforcing the form, bottom, or edge treatments. For 
example, bracing a slipped spill rock in a cascade. 

Protecting water features by controlling inappropriate 
volunteer plant materials. For example, cleaning a 
pond by removing invasive plant materials. 

Protecting water features from hazardous or toxic 
materials. For example, limiting agricultural fertiliz- 
ers to minimize their impact on associated streams. 



Failing to stabilize threatened water features. For 
example, permitting pedestrian access to further 
degrade threatened embankments. 

Allowing invasive vegetation to thrive, leading to 
radical changes in water quality. 



Failing to protect water features from point source, or 
runoff pollutants, toxins or wastes. 



Maintain Historic Features and Materials 



Maintaining water features by use of non-destructive 
methods and daily, seasonal, and cyclical tasks. For 
example, cleaning leaf litter or mineral deposits from 
drainage inlets or outlets. 



Maintaining a water feature's mechanical, plumbing 
and electrical systems to insure appropriate depth of 
water or direction of flow. For example, routinely 
greasing and lubricating gate mechanisms in a canal 
lock. 



Failing to undertake preventive maintenance to water 
features. 

Utilizing maintenance methods which destroy or 
degrade water features, such as heavily weighted 
equipment in the base of a pond, thus destroying its 
fragile lining. 

Allowing mechanical systems to fall into a state of 
disrepair, resulting in changes to the water feature. 
For example, failing to maintain a fountain's 
plumbing, thus altering its spray. 



37 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



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777/s integrity of this historic irrigation system in San Antonio, 
Texas, [above] has been preserved by keeping it clean of leaf litter 
and mineral deposits, (author, 1992) The plan for the Kehlbeck 
Farmstead in Cass County, Nebraska, [right] illustrates a well- 
planned and aesthetically arranged general farm complex of the 
twentieth century. Note the varied graphic techniques used to identify 
and document a variety of fence types. (National Register Files) 




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Repair Historic Features and Materials 



Repairing water features by reinforcing materials or 
augmenting mechanical systems. For example, 
patching a crack in an irrigation ditch or repairing a 
failed pump mechanism. 



Replacing or removing features or systems when repair 
is possible. For example, abandoning an irrigation 
system that could be repaired. 



Limited Replacement In Kind 
of Extensively Deteriorated Portions of Historic Features 



Replacing in kind a portion of a water feature when it is 
too deteriorated or damaged to be repaired. For 
example, installing coping stones in limited areas that 
match the old in composition, design, color and 
texture. 



Replacing portions of water features using a new 
material when the historic material is available. 



38 



PRESERVATION GUIDELINES 



STRUCTURES. FURNISHINGS AND OBJECTS 
Identify, Retain, and Preserve Historic Materials and Features 



Identifying, retaining and preserving existing structures, 
furnishings and objects prior to project work-including 
gazebos and bridges, playground equipment and 
drinking fountains, benches, lights, statuary and 
troughs. Documenting the relationship of these features 
to each other, their surrounds, and their material 
compositions. 

Evaluating the condition and determining the age of 
structures, furnishings and objects. For example, 
utilizing Historic Structure Reports and historic aerial 
photographs to understand the relationship of barns, 
windmills, silos and water troughs in a ranch 
compound or the placement of light standards and 
benches along park paths. 

Retaining the historic relationships between the 
landscape and its buildings, structures, furnishings 
and objects. 



Undertaking project work that impacts structures, 
furnishings, and objects without undertaking an 
"existing conditions" survey. For example, removing 
historic roadside 



Undertaking work without understanding the signifi- 
cance of structures, furnishings and objects. For 
example, removing a pergola that defines a 
courtyard, or fence posts that delineate the limits of a 
horse farm. 



Removing or relocating buildings, structures, 
furnishings and objects, thus destroying or diminish- 
ing the historic relationship between the landscape 
and these features. For example, taking down an 
estate's greenhouse, or removing a stone mile- 
marker from a historic road. 



Stabilize and Protect Deteriorated Historic Materials and Features 
as a Preliminary Measure 



Stabilizing structures, furnishings and objects by 
reinforcement or consolidation of their features or 
materials. For example, reinforcing a roof member of 
a bandshell or using an epoxy consolidant on a 
spalling masonry bench. 



Failing to stabilize threatened structures, furnishings 
and objects. For example, permitting the effects of 
severe weather to damage or destroy vulnerable 
features. 



Protecting the features and materials of structures, 
furnishings and objects. For example, installing a 
fence around a deteriorating pumping station or 
placing a temporary shelter or box over a garden 
ornament in winter. 



Allowing vulnerable structures, furnishings and objects 
to remain unprotected. For example, failing to secure 
doors and windows of an abandoned boathouse, thus 
permitting vandalism or looting. 



Maintain Historic Features and Materials 



Maintaining structures, furnishings and objects by use 
of non-destructive methods and daily, cyclical and 
seasonal tasks. This may include cleaning, limited 
paint removal, or re-application of protective coating 
systems. 



Failing to undertake preventive maintenance for 
structures, furnishings and objects resulting in their 
damage or loss. For example, failing to remove rust 
from an iron boot scraper which leads to its 
deterioration. 

Utilizing maintenance practices and materials that 
are harsh, abrasive, or unproven. For example, using 
grit blasting on wood, brick, or soft stone, or using 
harsh chemicals on masonry or metals. 



39 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 




Top: Council rings are simple stone benches with fire pits in the center that resemble the kivas of the Pueblo Indians in the American Southwest. 
Landscape architect Jens Jensen typically placed council rings along a woodland edge-often where they are prone to successional overgrowth. By 
employing cyclical and seasonal clearing operations, the area around and within the council ring at the Clearing in Ellison Bay, Wisconsin, has been 
kept free of perennial weeds, and the stone masonry remains in excellent condition, (author, 1 993) 



Repair Historic Features and Materials 



Repairing features and materials of structures, 
furnishings and objects by reinforcing historic 
materials. For example, returning the mechanism of 
a windmill to good working order or straightening bent 
wrought iron fencing. 



Replacing or destroying a feature of structures, 
furnishings or objects when repair is possible. For 
example, replacing a pavilion's tile roof with asphalt 
shingles or removing a broken historic light fixture 
rather than rewiring it. 



Limited Replacement In-Kind 
of Extensively Deteriorated Portions of Historic Features 



Replacing in-kind a feature of a building, structure, 
furnishing or object when it is too deteriorated to 
repair. New materials should match the old in 
composition, design, color and texture. For example, 
replacing broken wooden fence or bench slats, 
clapboards or shingles, window parts, or deck timbers 
in-kind. 



Removing or replacing features of buildings, structures, 
furnishings or objects with new material when historic 
materials are available. For example, demolishing an 
ice house rather than re-roofing it, or failing to save and 
reattach the original portion of a stone statue, using a 
concrete replacement instead. 

Adding "period"-looking buildings, structures, furnish- 
ings and objects. 



40 



PRESERVATION GUIDELINES 




Many of the stones from the Island Bridge along Boston s Riverway had fallen into the Muddy River below. As part of the preservation work, 
these stones were retrieved from the water and reused, in addition to several new stones that were cut to order to replace in-kind those that 
were lost, (author, 1988, 1994) 



41 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 




Although the work in the following 
sections is quite often an important 
aspect of preservation projects, its is 
usually not part of the overall process of 
preserving character-defining features 
(maintenance, repair and limited replace- 
ment); rather, such work is assessed for 
its potential negative impact on the 
landscape's historic character. For this 
reason, particular care must be taken not 
to obscure, alter, or damage character- 
defining features. 



To meet ADA requirements, accessibility to the 
Houghton Chapel at Wellesley College has been 
provided from a secondary entrance. The landscape 
in this area possessed little integrity-thus, as part of 
this regrading operation, the historic granite stairs 
were buried below and preserved in-situ, below the 
new grade. (Carol R. Johnson Associates, Inc.) 



ACCESSIBILITY CONSIDERATIONS 



Recommended 



Not Recommended 



Identifying the cultural landscape's character-defining 
features, materials and finishes so that accessibility 
code-required work will not result in their damage or loss. 



Undertaking code-required alterations before identi- 
fying those features, materials and finishes which are 
character-defining and must therefore be preserved. 



Complying with barrier-free access requirements, in 
such a way that character-defining features, materials 
and finishes are preserved. For example, widening 
existing brick walks by adding new brick adjacent to it 
to achieve the desired width. 



Damaging or destroying character-defining features 
in attempting to comply with accessibility require- 
ments. For example, paving over historic concrete 
walks with blacktop. 



42 



PRESERVATION GUIDELINES 



Working with local accessibility and preservation 
specialists to determine the most appropriate 
solution to access problems which will have the least 
impact on character-defining features. 

Providing barrier-free access that promotes indepen- 
dence for the disabled person to the highest degree 
practicable, while preserving significant character- 
defining landscape features, materials and finishes. 
For example, incorporating wider sidewalks only at 
intersections where ramps are being installed, 
leaving the main runs or historic sidewalks in place. 

Finding solutions to meet accessibility requirements 
that minimize the impact on the cultural landscape, 
for example, retaining the original character-defining 
entrance steps and replacing the access ramp at a 
side or secondary entrance. 



Altering character-defining features, materials and 
finishes without consulting with local accessibility and 
preservation specialists. 



Making access modifications that do not provide a 
reasonable balance between independent, safe 
access and preservation of character-defining 
landscape features, materials and finishes. For 
example, replacing three foot wide stone, brick or 
historic concrete sidewalks with new, wider concrete 
sidewalks. 

Making modifications for accessibility without 
considering the impact on the cultural landscape. For 
example, introducing a new access element (ramp or 
lift) that destroys the symmetry of a formal garden. 



HEALTH AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 



Recommended 



Not Recommended 



Identifying the cultural landscape's character- 
defining features, materials and finishes so that code- 
related work will not result in their damage or loss. 

Complying with health and safety code requirements, 
in such a manner that character-defining features, 
materials and finishes are preserved. For example, 
recognizing standards for the application of 
pesticides or herbicides. 



Undertaking code-required alterations before identi- 
fying those features, materials and finishes which are 
character-defining and must therefore be preserved. 

Altering, damaging or destroying character-defining 
features, materials and finishes while making 
modifications to a cultural landscape to comply with 
safety codes. 



Removing toxic materials only after thorough testing 
has been conducted and only after less invasive 
abatement methods have been shown to be 
inadequate. 



Destroying a cultural landscape's character-defining 
features, materials and finishes without careful 
testing and without considering less invasive 
abatement methods. 



Providing workers with appropriate personal protec- 
tive equipment for hazards found in the worksite. 



Removing unhealthful materials without regard to 
personal and environmental safety. 



Working with local code officials to investigate 
systems, methods, or devices of equivalent or 
superior effectiveness and safety to those prescribed 
by code so that unnecessary alterations can be 
avoided. 



Making changes to cultural landscapes without first 
exploring equivalent health and safety systems, 
methods, or devices that may be less damaging to 
character-defining features, materials and finishes. 



Upgrading character-defining features to meet health 
and safety codes in a manner that assures their 
preservation. For example, upgrading a historic 
stairway without destroying character-defining hand- 
rails and balustrades. 



Damaging or obscuring character-defining features, 
materials and finishes or adjacent areas in the 
process of doing work to meet code requirements. 



43 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Installing safety-related systems that result in the 
retention of character-defining features, materials, 
and finishes; for example, fire-suppression systems 
or seismic retrofits. 



Covering character-defining features with fire 
resistant sheathing which results in altering their 
visual appearance. 



Applying the necessary materials to add protection to 
character-defining features, materials and finishes. 
For example, applying fire retardant, intumescent 
paint coatings to a deck to add thermal protection to 
its steel. 

Adding new features to meet health and safety codes 
in a manner that preserves adjacent character- 
defining features, materials and finishes. For 
example, creating a fire access route along a derelict 
historic corridor. 



Using materials intended to provide additional 
protection, such as fire-retardant coatings, if they 
damage or obscure character-defining features, 
materials and finishes. 



Radically changing, damaging or destroying charac- 
ter-defining features, materials and finishes when 
adding new code-required features. 



ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS 



Recommended 

Identifying the cultural landscape's character-defining 
features, materials and finishes so that environmental 
protection-required work will not result in their 
damage or loss. 

Complying with environmental protection regulations 
in such a manner that character-defining features, 
materials and finishes are preserved. For example, 
protecting historic vegetation in which rare and 
endangered species nest. 

Working with environmental protection officials to 
investigate systems, methods, devices or technolo- 
gies of equivalent or superior effectiveness to those 
prescribed by regulation so that unnecessary 
alterations can be avoided. 



Not Recommended 

Undertaking environmental protection required work 
before identifying character-defining features, mate- 
rials and finishes which should be preserved. 



Altering damaging or destroying character-defining 
features, materials and finishes while making 
modifications to a cultural landscape to comply with 
environmental protection regulations. 



Making changes to cultural landscapes without first 
exploring equivalent environmental protection sys- 
tems, methods, devices or technologies that may be 
less damaging to historic features, materials and 
finishes. 



Reclaiming or re-establishing natural resources in a 
manner that promotes the highest degree of 
environmental protection, while preserving signifi- 
cant historic features, materials and finishes. For 
example, reclaiming a wetland to comply with 
applicable environmental regulations, while re- 
establishing the feature as it appeared historically. 
Undertaking environmental protection-required work 



Making environmental protection related modifica- 
tions that do not provide a reasonable balance 
between improved environmental conditions and the 
preservation of historic features, materials and 
finishes. 



44 



PRESERVATION GUIDELINES 



ENERGY EFFICIENCY 



Recommended 



Not Recommended 



Retaining and maintaining those historic energy 
efficient features or parts of features of the 
landscape. For example, maintaining vegetation 
which performs passive solar energy functions. 

Improving energy efficiency of existing features 
through non-destructive means. For example, 
utilizing a recirculating system in a fountain rather 
than uncontrolled discharge to a storm system. 



Removing or altering those historic features or parts 
of features which play an energy conserving role. For 
example, removing a historic windbreak. 



Replacing energy inefficient features rather than 
improving their energy conservation potential. For 
example, replacing an entire historic light standard 
rather than retrofitting the fixture to be more efficient. 



45 



Standards for Rehabilitation && 
Guidelines for Rehabilitating Cultural 
Landscapes 



When repair and replacement of 
deteriorated features are 
necessary; when alterations or 
additions to the property are 
planned for a new or continued 
use; and when its depiction at a 
particular period of time is not 
appropriate, Rehabilitation may be 
considered as a treatment Prior to 
undertaking work, a documentation 
plan for Rehabilitation should be 
developed. 



Standards for Rehabilitation 




Rehabilitation is defined as the act or 
process of making possible a compatible 
use for a property through repair, 
alterations, and additions while preserving 
those portions or features which convey its 
historical, cultural, or architectural values. 



1 . A property will be used as it was historically or be given a new use that requires 
minimal change to its distinctive materials, features, spaces, and spatial 
relationships. 

2. The historic character of a property will be retained and preserved. The removal 
of distinctive materials or alteration of features, spaces, and spatial relationships 
that characterize a property will be avoided. 

3. Each property will be recognized as a physical record of its time, place, and use. 
Changes that create a false sense of historical development, such as adding 
conjectural features or elements from other historic properties, will not be 
undertaken. 

4. Changes to a property that have acquired historic significance in their own right 
shall be retained and preserved. 

5. Distinctive materials, features, finishes, and construction techniques or 
examples of craftsmanship that characterize a property will be preserved. 

6. Deteriorated historic features will be repaired rather than replaced. Where the 
severity of deterioration requires replacement of a distinctive feature, the new 
feature will match the old in design, color, 

texture, and, where possible, materials. Replacement of missing features will be 
substantiated by documentary and physical evidence. 

7. Chemical or physical treatments, if appropriate, will be undertaken using the 
gentlest means possible. Treatments that cause damage to historic materials will 
not be used. 

8. Archeological resources will be protected and preserved in place. If such 
resources must be disturbed, mitigation measures will be undertaken. 

9. New additions, exterior alterations, or related new construction will not destroy 
historic materials, features, and spatial relationships that characterize the property. 
The new work will be differentiated from the old and will be compatible with the 
historic materials, features, size, scale and proportion, and massing to protect the 
integrity of the property and its environment. 

1 0. New additions and adjacent or related new construction will be undertaken in 
a such a manner that, if removed in the future, the essential form and integrity of the 
historic property and its environment would be unimpaired. 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Introduction 



In Rehabilitation, a cultural landscape's 
character-defining features and materials are 
protected and maintained as they are in the 
treatment Preservation; however, a determina- 
tion is made prior to work that a greater amount 
of existing historic fabric has become damaged 
or deteriorated over time and, as a result, more 
repair and replacement will be required. The 
Standards for Rehabilitation and Guide- 
lines for Rehabilitation allow the replace- 
ment of extensively deteriorated, damaged, or 
missing features using either traditional or 
substitute materials. For example, Rehabili- 
tation may include replacing a crushed 
bluestone carriage drive with a rolled aggregate 
finish or replacing shaded-out understory 
shrubs with more shade-tolerant species. Of 
the four treatments, only Rehabilitation 
includes an opportunity to make possible an 
efficient contemporary use through alterations 
and additions; for example, replacing tillage 
with permanent grasslands to support a new 
system of livestock grazing or introducing new 
turf management to a park's open meadows to 
support sports field use. 




M Identify, Retain, and Preserve Historic 
Materials and Features 

Like Preservation, guidance for the treatment 
Rehabilitation begins with recommendations 
to identify those landscape features and 
materials important to the landscape's historic 
character and which must be retained. 
Therefore, guidance on identifying, retain- 
ing, and preserving character-defining 
features is always given first. An overall 
evaluation of existing conditions should always 
begin at this level. The character of a cultural 
landscape is defined by its spatial organization 
and land patterns; features such as topography, 
vegetation, and circulation; and materials, such 
as an embedded aggregate pavement. 



When evaluating the surviving spatial organization and land 
patterns of battlefield lands today, it is necessary to 
understand historic documents, such as this map section 
[top right], prior to making management decisions. This 
documents the 1862 entrenchments lines and the routes 
followed by U. S. Forces under the Command of Union MG 
Halleck, in their advance on the Confederate stronghold of 
Corinth, Mississippi. (NPS archive) This century-old oak 
[opposite] from a Hudson river estate has been grounded for 
its protection with a lightening rod. (author, 1991) 




50 



REHABILITATION GUIDELINES 



Protect and Maintain Historic Features and Materials 



After identifying those materials and features that 
are important and must be retained in the process 
of Rehabilitation work, then protecting and 
maintaining them are addressed. Protection 
generally involves the least degree of intervention 
and is preparatory to other work; it may be 
accomplished through permanent or temporary 
measures. For example, protection includes 
restricting access to fragile earthworks or cabling 
a tree to protect against breakage. Maintenance 
includes daily, seasonal, and cyclical tasks, and 
the techniques, methods and materials used to 
implementthem. Forexample, repointingastone 
footbridge, pruning a hedge, or rotating crops. 



* Repair Historic Features and Materials 

When existing conditions of character-defining 
materials and portions of features warrant more 
extensive work, repairing is recommended. 
Rehabilitation guidance for the repair of 
historic features and materials, such as brick 
pavements, masonry walls, and wire fencing, 
begins with the least degree of intervention 
possible. Such work could include regrading a 
section of a silted swale, aerating soil, or 
reclaiming a segment of meadow edge. 
Repairing also includes the limited replacement 
in kind of extensively deteriorated materials or 
parts of features, or replacement in kind of 
materials or parts of features lost due to 
seasonal change. Using material which 
matches the historic in design, color, and 
texture is always the preferred option; however, 
substitute material is acceptable if the material 
conveys the same visual appearance as the 
historic period. For example, spring replace- 
ment of annual beds; in an orchard, planting a 
tree of new stock that matches the historic form, 
and composition; or, using a spun aluminum 
baluster where a cast zinc member was 
beyond repair. 



Traditional maintenance practices for the corral fences 
at the Hubbell Trading Post NHS [top right] in Ganado, 
Arizona have preserved the integrity of the wooden 
fencing and the dirt yards they define. This historic birch 
allee [opposite] at Stan Hywet Hall, Akron, Ohio, was 
suffering from borer infestation and leaf miner. Dying 
trees were topped and basal sprout growth encouraged. 
Trees were thinned, and , when new growth matured, 
older trunks were removed. Original rootstock and 
genetic material were preserved. This work took fifteen 
years to realize, (author, 1996, 1994) 





51 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Replace Deteriorated Historic Materials and Features 



Following repair in the hierarchy, Rehabilita- 
tion guidance is provided for replacing an 
entire character-defining feature with new 
material because the level of deterioration or 
damage precludes repair. Examples include 
replacing a farm's drought-damaged pasture or 
replacing a corroded cast iron fence 
surrounding a reservoir. Like the guidance for 
repair, the preferred option is always 
replacement of the entire feature in kind. 
Because this approach may not always be 
technically, economically, or environmentally 
feasible, the use of compatible substitute 
materials can be considered. Whatever level of 
replacement takes place, the historic features 
and materials should serve as a guide to the 
work. 

While the Guidelines recommend the replace- 
ment of an entire feature that is extensively 
deteriorated or damaged, they never recom- 
mend removal and replacement with new 
material if repair is possible. 



M Design for the Replacement of 
Missing Historic Features 

When an entire feature is missing, the 
landscape's historic character is diminished. 
Although accepting the loss is one possibility, 
where an important feature is missing, its 
replacement is always recommended in the 
Rehabilitation guidelines as the first or 
preferred, course of action. Thus, if adequate 
historical, pictorial, and physical documenta- 
tion exists so that the feature may be accurately 
reproduced, and if it is desirable to re-establish 
the feature as part of the landscape's historical 



Where historic fences were lost, new replacement 
fences [top right] have been constructed based on 
historic photographs of nearby neighborhoods for the 
Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site, Atlanta, 
Georgia, (courtesy NPS) Historically, plant materials 
for the design of Perry's Victory and International Peace 
Memorial in Put-in-Bay, Ohio, [center] were ill-chosen 
for the severe conditions. The design for replacement 
hedges at this waterfront location should use a hardier 
species than originally planted, (courtesy NPS) This 
former carousel in Genessee Valley Park, Rochester, 
New York, [opposite] has been re-used as a picnic 
shelter. The installation of a new restroom facility has 
also been required by the heavy public use of the park. 
The design of the latter facility is clearly new, but is 
inspired by earlier park shelter design. (LANDSCAPES) 




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52 



REHABILITATION GUIDELINES 



appearance, then planning, designing and installing a 
new feature based on such information is appropriate. 

A second course of action for the replacement featu re is 
a new design that is compatible with the remaining 
character-defining features of the historic landscape. 
The new design should always take into account the 
spatial organization and land patterns, features, and 
materials of the cultural landscape itself and, most 
importantly, should be clearly differentiated so that a 
false historical appearance is not created. For example, 
replacing a set of lost granite steps with concrete steps 
which match the historic in location, size, scale, color 
and texture or replacing a mass of Eastern hemlocks 
with Japanese spruce. 



H Alterations/Additions for the New Use 

When alterations to a cultural landscape are needed to 
assure its continued use, it is most important that such 
alterations do not radically change, obscure, or destroy 
character-defining spatial organization and land patterns 



or features and materials. Alterations may include 
enclosing a septic system, increasing lighting 
footcandles, extending acceleration and deceleration 
lanes on parkways, or, adding new planting to screen a 
contemporary use or facility. Such work may also 
include the selective removal of features that detract from 
the overall historic character. 

The installation of additions to a cultural landscape may 
seem to be essential for the new use, but it is 
emphasized in the Rehabilitation guidelines that such 
new additions should be avoided, if possible, and 
considered only after it is determined that those needs 
cannot be met by altering secondary, i.e., non character- 
defining, spatial organization and land patterns or 
features. If, after a thorough evaluation of alternative 
solutions, a new addition is still judged to be the only 
viable alterative, it should be planned, designed, and 
installed to be clearly differentiated from the character- 
defining features, so that these features are not radically 
changed, obscured, damaged, or destroyed. For 
example, constructing a parking lot in a secondary 
meadow that is enclosed by existing vegetation or 




This Central Park playground had become deteriorated over time. Rather than replace the structures with standard apparatus from a catalog, 
the new play structures-made of traditional materials-are compatible with the park's historic character. (Central Park Conservancy) 



53 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



installing contemporary trail signage that is 
compatible with the historic character of a 
landscape. 

Additions and alterations to cultural landscapes 
are referenced within specific sections of the 
Rehabilitation guidelines such as Topogra- 
phy, Vegetation and Water Features. 



H Accessibility Considerations/Health 
and Safety Considerations/Environmen- 
tal Considerations and Energy Effi- 
ciency 

These sections of the Rehabilitation 
guidance address work done to meet 
accessibility requirements; health and safety 
code; environmental requirements; or limited 
retrofitting measures to improve energy 
efficiency. Although this work is quite often an 
important aspect of preservation projects, it is 
usually not part of the overall process of 
protecting, stabilizing, conserving, or repairing 
character-defining features; rather, such work is 
assessed for its potential negative impact on 
the landscape's character. For this reason, 
particular care must be taken not to obscure, 
damage, or destroy character-defining materi- 
als or features in the process of undertaking 
work to meet code and energy requirements. 




The Arnold Arboretum's Hunneywell Visitor's Center in 
Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, was constructed in 
1892. [top right] Its immediate setting has changed 
considerably over time, [center] Since the existing 
landscape immediately surrounding the structure has 
little remaining integrity, the new accessibility solution 
has the latitude to integrate a broad program including 
site orientation, circulation, interpretation, and mainte- 
nance. The new planting design, references the original 
planting design principles, with a strong emphasis on 
form, color, and texture. The new curvilinear walks also 
provide a connection to the larger arboretum landscape 
for everyone, [opposite] 




54 



Guidelines for 

Rehabilitating Cultural Landscapes 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



SPATIAL ORGANIZATION AND LAND PATTERNS 
Identify, Retain, and Preserve Historic Materials and Features 



Recommended 

Identifying, retaining and preserving the existing spatial 
organization and land patterns of the landscape as they 
have evolved overtime. Prior to beginning project work, 
documenting all features which define those 
relationships. This includes the size, configuration, 
proportion and relationship of component landscapes; 
the relationship of features to component landscapes; 
and the component landscapes themselves, such as a 
terrace garden, a farmyard, or forest-to-field patterns. 



Not Recommended 

Undertaking project work without understanding the 
effect on existing spatial organization and land patterns. 
For example, constructing a structure that creates new 
spatial divisions or not researching an agricultural 
property's development history. 



Protect and Maintain Historic Features and Materials 



Protecting and maintaining features that define spatial 
organization and land patterns by non-destructive 
methods in daily, seasonal and cyclical tasks. For 
example, maintaining topography, vegetation, and 
structures which comprise the overall pattern of the 
cultural landscape. 



Allowing spatial organization and land patterns to be 
altered through incompatible development or neglect. 

Utilizing maintenance methods which destroy or obscure 
the landscape's spatial organization and land patterns. 




LOOKING WEST INTO JONES MILL POND 



LIST OF PLANT MA TERIAL 

HALFWA Y CREEK 

Botanical Name Common Name Botanical N ame Common Name 

Carya ovata HICKORY Pmus sylvestns SCOTCH PINE 

Castanea dentata CHESTNUT Pnjnus serotma BLACK CHERRY 

Cornus Honda DOGWOOD Quercus sp OAKS 

Juglans nigra WALNUT Robmia sp LOCUST 

Linodandron tulipitara TULIP TREE Sassafras albidom SASSAFRAS 



PARKWAY VIEWS 

JONES MILL POND 




LOCATION MAP 





HALFWAY CREEK 



L/ST OF PLANT MA TERIAL 


JONES MILL POND 


Botanical Name 


Common Name 


Acer saccharum 


SUGAR MAPLE 


Cere is canadensis 


REDBUD 


Fagus grand if oha 


BEECH 


Jump ems Virginians 


BED CEDAR 


Ka/mia iatifoha 


MOUNTAIN LAUREL 


Liqttidombar stvraciflua 


SWEETGUM 


Mynca cenfera 


SOUTHERN BA YBEBRY 


Pin us taede 


LOBLOLLY PINE 


Platanus occidentals 


SYCAMORE 


Quercus sp 


OAKS 



LO OKING EAST OVER HALFWAY CREEK 






& x 



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\\ \\ 



iMm&MMMMk^:^ ..-„ .c^MMi:^M^J^X^i^^M^,l ^mk^iM^ 




Colonial Parkway was first designed in 1 930-3 1 and developed over a period of thirty years. The historic corridor embodies modern parkway design 
standards with its curvilinear alignment and scenic intent. The approach used in developing the views was to frame them with native vegetation collected 
and planted on-site, while also maximizing the visual contact with the York and James rivers. Research and analysis findings have verified the high 
level of integrity of the overall design, without any significant changes to the parkway's engineering. (HABS) 



56 



REHABILITATION GUIDELINES 




Mount Vernon 's spatial organization and land patterns, both within the historic property and its geographic context, have been preserved through 
appropriate maintenance, management techniques and land conservation strategies, (photos by Jack Boucher for HABS) 

57 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Repair Historic Features and Materials 



Repairing materials that define the spatial organization 
and land patterns by use of non-destructive methods 
and materials when additional work is required. For 
example, repairing structures or regenerating vegetation 
which comprise the individual spaces or overall patterns 
of the cultural landscape. 



Failing to undertake necessary repairs resulting in the 
loss of spatial organization and land patterns. 

Replacing a feature that defines spatial organization and 
land patterns when repair is possible. 



Replace Deteriorated Historic Materials and Features 



Replacing in kind an entire feature that defines spatial 
organization and land patterns that is too deteriorated 
to repair. 



Removing a feature that is beyond repair and not replacing 
it; or, replacing it with a new feature that does not respect 
the spatial organization and land patterns. 



Design for the Replacement of Missing Historic Features 



Designing and installing new features which respect or 
acknowledge the historic spatial organization and land 
patterns. It may be an accurate restoration using 
historical, pictorial and physical documentation; or be a 
new design that is compatible with the spatial 
organization and land patterns. For example, installing 
a new shrubplanting which defines the edge of a missing 
historic boundary. 



Creating a false historical appearance because the 
replacement feature is based on insufficient historical, 
pictorial and physical documentation. 

Introducing new features that are incompatible with the 
spatial organization or land patterns. 



MUHTtNAHCt 




At the Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site, Ganado, Arizona, the spatial organization and land patterns will be reinstated and the agricultural 
fields returned to active cultivation and forage crops. To re-establish the lost spatial relationships, apple trees along the irrigation canals will be replaced 
and the terraces they define will be returned to pasture grasses and haying. (Landscape Systems/Peggy Nelson) 



58 



REHABILITATION GUIDELINES 



Alterations/Additions for the New Use 



Designing new features when required by the new 
compatible use to assure the preservation of the historic 
spatial organization and land patterns. 



Adding a new feature that detracts from or alters the 
spatial organization and land patterns. For example, 
constructing a new farm house wing over a kitchen 
garden. 



Placing a new feature where it may cause damage to, 
or be intrusive in spatial organization and land patterns. 
For example, inserting a new visitors center that blocks 
or alters a historic view or vista. 



Removing non significant features which detract from or 
have altered the spatial organization and land patterns. 



Introducing a new feature that is visually incompatible 
in size, scale, design, materials, color and texture. 

Removing historic features which are important in 
defining spatial organization and land patterns. 




The significance of Waterford is 
conveyed in its history, topogra- 
phy, architecture and integrity. The 
relationship between people and 
the land, as reflected in the 
topography, as well as the pristine 
character and integrity of the 
landscape, are of paramount 
importance when considering alter- 
ations or additions to the Village 's 
spatial organization and land 
patterns. These perspectives 
illustrate two development plans: 
one for conventional development 
[bottom, not recommended], and 
one for limited development 
[opposite, recommended]. 
(Waterford Foundation) 



&& 




59 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



TOPOGRAPHY 



Identify, Retain, and Preserve Historic Features and Materials 

Recommended Not Recommended 



Identifying, retaining and preserving the existing 
topography. Documenting topographic variation prior to 
project work, including shape, slope, elevation, aspect, 
and contour. For example, preparing a topographic 
survey. 

Evaluating and understanding the evolution of a 
landscape's topography over time. Using archival 
resources such as plans and aerial photographs or, in 
their absence, archeological analysis techniques to 
understand the historic topography. 



Undertaking project work that impacts topography 
without undertaking a topographic survey. 



Executing project work without understanding its impact 
on historic topographic resources, for example, 
watershed systems. 



Protect and Maintain Historic Features and Materials 



Protecting and maintaining historic topography by use 
of non-destructive methods and daily, seasonal and 
cyclical tasks. This may include cleaning drainage 
systems or mowing vegetative cover. 



Failing to undertake preventive maintenance. 

Utilizing maintenance methods which destroy or degrade 
topography, such as using heavily weighted equipment 
on steep or vulnerable slopes. 




bUILDIN&b 

O TR "S 

^~ DIRECTION OF NATURAL 



WATER. f\_0W 



The central portion of the Ke 'anae peninsula contains the most tightly clustered concentration oftaro "to Tin the area. The to '/ themselves are surrounded 
by convex earthen banks. These banks serve as topographic dividers between the fields as well as trails for foot traffic-one person; single file. The 
wider banks, some of which measure eight to ten feet, provide access for tractors and all-terrain vehicles. This plan documents dirt mounds that have 
survived in the Wailuanui Lo V Complex . (Group 70) 



60 



REHABILITATION GUIDELINES 




Located on the southeastern comer of Boston Common, the Central Burying Ground (1754) is the fourth oldest burying ground in Boston, 
Massachusetts. One of its most distinguishing topographic features, a free-standing mound tomb--the last of its kind remaining in the city-had partially 
collapsed. Prior to its restoration, [see page 105] further deterioration was arrested with a wooden shoring and bracing system, thus preventing 
its total collapse. (Boston Parks & Recreation, Historic Burying Ground Initiative) 

61 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Repair Historic Features and Materials 



Repair declining topographic features. For example, re- 
excavating a silted swale through appropriate regrading 
or reestablishing an eroding agricultural terrace. 



Destroying the shape, slope, elevation or contour of 
topography when repair is possible. 



Replace Deteriorated Historic Materials and Features 



Using existing physical evidence of the form and 
composition to reproduce a deteriorated topographic 
feature. If using the same kind of material is not 
technically, economically, or environmentally feasible, 
then a compatible substitute material may be 
considered. For example, re-establishing eroded 
bunkers or ramparts in a battlefield with a substitute 
soil mix that supports improved drainage and health and 
vigor of ground cover plant materials. 



Removing a topographic feature that is deteriorated and 
not replacing it, or replacing it with a new feature that 
does not convey the same visual appearance. For 
example, changing stepped terracing to a curved slope. 



Design for the Replacement of Missing Historic Features 



Designing and installing new topographic features when 
the historic feature is completely missing. It may be an 
accurate restoration using historical, pictorial and 
physical documentation or a new design that is 
compatible with the shape, slope, elevation and contour 
of the historic topography. For example, installing an 
artificial jetty to replace one lost to beach erosion. 



Creating a false historical appearance because the 
replacement feature is based on insufficient historical, 
pictorial and physical documentation. 

Introducing a new topographic feature that is 
incompatible in shape, slope, elevation, aspect and 
contour. 



Alterations/Additions for the New Use 



Designing new topographic features when required by 
the new use so that they are as unobtrusive as possible 
and assure the preservation of the historic landscape. 
For example, designing and installing drainage systems 
to protect historic topographic features. 



Placing a new feature where it may cause damage, or 
is incompatible with historic topography. For example, 
failing to provide proper drainage for a new feature which 
results in the decline or loss of topographic features. 

Locating a new feature in such a way that it detracts 
from or alters the historic topography. For example, 
obscuring a historic shoreline through the construction 
of a newbreakwall. 

Introducing a new feature in an appropriate location, but 
making it visually incompatible in terms of its size, scale, 
design, materials, color and texture. For example, 
installing berms to screen new parking, but using 
incongruous topographic shape and contour. 



62 



REHABILITATION GUIDELINES 



VEGETATION 
Identify, Retain, and Preserve Historic Features and Materials 



Recommended 



Not Recommended 



Identifying, retaining and preserving the existing historic 
vegetation prior to project work. For example, 
woodlands, forests, trees, shrubs, crops, meadows, 
planting beds, vines and ground covers. Documenting 
broad cover types, genus, species, caliper, and/or size, 
as well as color, scale, form and texture. 



Undertaking project work that impacts vegetation without 
executing an existing conditions survey of plant material. 



Evaluating the condition and determining the age of 
vegetation. For example, tree coring to determine age. 



Retaining and perpetuating vegetation through 
propagation of existing plants. Methods include seed 
collection and genetic stock cuttings from existing 
materials to preserve the genetic pool. 



Undertaking project work without understanding the 
significance of vegetation. For example, removing 
roadside trees for utility installations, or 
indiscriminate clearing of a woodland understory. 

Failing to propagate vegetation from extant genetic stock, 
when few or no known sources or replacements are 
available. 




The surviving woody plant materials were all documented for Melrose National Historical Park in Natchez, Mississippi. The plan for the core area of 
the eighty acre property documents all trees, shrubs and vines, including several sentinel trees. Two examples include the 78" red oak and the 60" 
live oak, both in the central parkland area. This documentation project provides a sound basis for future treatment and management decisions. (HABS) 

63 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Protect and Maintain Historic Features and Materials 



Protecting and maintaining historic vegetation by use of 
non-destructive methods and daily, seasonal and cyclical 
tasks. For example, employing pruning or the careful 
use of herbicides on historic fruit trees. 



Failing to undertake preventive maintenance of 
vegetation. 

Utilizing maintenance practices and techniques which 
are harmful to vegetation; for example, over- or under- 
irrigating. 



Utilizing maintenance practices which respect the habit, 
form, color, texture, bloom, fruit, fragrance, scale and 
context of historic vegetation. 



Utilizing maintenance practices and techniques that fail 
to recognize the uniqueness of individual plant materials. 
For example, utilizing soil amendments which may alter 
flower color or, poorly-timed pruning and/or application 
of insecticide which may alter fruit production. 



Utilizing historic horticultural and agricultural 
maintenance practices when those techniques are 
critical to maintaining the historic character of the 
vegetation. For example, the manual removal of dead 
flowers to ensure continuous bloom. 



Employing contemporary practices when traditional or 
historic can be used. For example, utilizing non- 
traditional harvesting practices when traditional practices 
are still feasible. 




Irrigation and other modern turf 
management techniques have 
changed the historic character of the 
lawn of the CCC-era headquarters 
complex at Scotts Bluff National 
Monument, Gering, Nebraska, [oppo- 
site] Trees are dying from over- 
watering and the manicured blue- 
grass lawn is distinctly different in 
character from its historic appear- 
ance [opposite] (NPS staff, 1995 
and 1938) 




64 



REHABILITATION GUIDELINES 



Tower Grove Park in St. Louis, Missouri, is 
a National Historic Landmark. The Victorian 
park, famous for its ornamental herbaceous 
beds, or "bedding-out, "[top] had all but lost 
most of these areas of seasonal plant 
display to mown lawn for ease of 
maintenance, [center] More recently, these 
beds have been reinstated using historic 
photographic documentation and written 
accounts. The results are herbaceous beds 
that are of a new design that is compatible 
with the habit, form, color, texture, scale, 
massing and context of the historic 
vegetation, [bottom] (Tower Grove Park) 





65 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Repair Historic Features and Materials 



Rejuvenating historic vegetation by corrective pruning, 
deep root fertilizing, aerating soil, renewing seasonal 
plantings and/or grafting onto historic genetic root stock. 



Replacing or destroying vegetation when rejuvenation is 
possible. For example, removing a deformed or damaged 
plant when corrective pruning may be employed. 



Replace Deteriorated Historic Materials and Features 



Using physical evidence of composition, form, and habit 
to replace a deteriorated, or declining, vegetation feature. 
If using the same kind of material is not technically, 
economically, or environmentally feasible, then a 
compatible substitute material may be considered. For 
example, replacing a diseased sentinel tree in a meadow 
with a disease resistant tree of similar type, form, shape 
and scale. 



Removing deteriorated historic vegetation and not 
replacing it, or replacing it with a new feature that does 
not convey the same visual appearance. For example, 
a large mature, declining canopy tree with a dwarf 
ornamental flowering tree. 



Design for the Replacement of Missing Historic Features 



Designing and installing new vegetation features when 
the historic feature is completely missing. It may be an 
accurate restoration using historical, pictorial and 
physical documentation; or be a new design that is 
compatible with the habit, form, color, texture, bloom, 
fruit, fragrance, scale and context of the historic 
vegetation. For example, replacing a lost vineyard with 
more hardy stock similar to the historic. 



Creating a false historical appearance because the 
replaced feature is based on insufficient historical, 
pictorial and physical documentation. 

Introducing new replacement vegetation that is 
incompatible with the historic character of the landscape. 



Alterations/Additions for the New Use 



Designing a compatible new vegetation feature when 
required by the new use to assure the preservation of 
the historic character of the landscape. For example, 
designing and installing a hedge that is compatible with 
the historic character of the landscape to screen new 
construction. 



Placing a new feature where it may cause damage or is 
incompatible with the character of the historic vegetation. 
For example, constructing a new building that adversely 
affects the root systems of historic vegetation. 

Locating any new vegetation feature in such a way that 
it detracts from or alters the historic vegetation. For 
example, introducing exotic species in a landscape that 
was historically comprised of indigenous plants. 

Introducing a new vegetation feature in an appropriate 
location, which is visually incompatible in terms of its 
habit, form, color, texture, bloom, fruit, fragrance, scale 
or context 



66 



REHABILITATION GUIDELINES 




* 







77?e Star-Fort at the Ninety-Six Battlefield, Ninety-Six, South Carolina, was eroding from mowing operations. [ top] To remedy the situation, 
native grasses were installed on the historic Revolutionary War Star Fort, [bottom] The interior of the fort has been mown short to 
accommodate visitor access, but tall native grasses are kept longer on the earthworks to discourage visitors from walking on them and to aid 
in their interpretation. The difference in height of the new grasses also help to visually define the earthworks themselves, (courtesy NPS) 

67 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 

CIRCULATION 
Identify, Retain, and Preserve Historic Features and Materials 



Recommended 



Not Recommended 



Identifying, retaining, and preserving the existing circu- 
lation systems prior to project work. All circulation fea- 
tures should be documented, from small paths and walks 
to larger transportation corridors such as parkways, 
highways, railroads and canals. Documenting alignment, 
surface treatment, edge, grade, materials and infrastruc- 
ture. 



Executing project work that impacts circulation sys- 
tems without undertaking an existing conditions sur- 
vey. 



Evaluating the existing condition and determining the 
age of circulation systems. For example, using aerial 
photographs to understand a transportation corridor's 
change from a two-lane route to a six-lane highway. 



Undertaking work without understanding the significance 
of circulation systems. For example, changing road 
alignments and widths without a thorough evaluation of 
the historic road. 




This modern highway, which approximates the Oregon Trail approach to Mitchell Pass, was documented as part of a recent inventory project. Although 
the traffic noise is intrusive , the highway allow visitors to experience movement through the landscape, an important component of the trail, (courtesy 
NPS) 

68 



REHABILITATION GUIDELINES 



Protect and Maintain Historic Features and Materials 



Protecting and maintaining circulation systems by use 
of non-destructive methods in daily, seasonal and cycli- 
cal tasks. This may include hand-raking, top-dressing, 
or rolling surface materials. 

Utilizing maintenance practices which respect infrastruc- 
ture. For example, cleaning out debris from drainage 
systems. 



Failing to undertake preventive maintenance of circula- 
tion features and materials. For example, using a snow 
plow across a coarse textured pavement. 



Using materials such as salts and chemicals, that can 
hasten the deterioration of surface treatments. 

Allowing infrastructure to become dysfunctional. For 
example, permitting a failed drainage system to con- 
tribute to the degradation and loss of associated curbs 
or erosion of road shoulders. 



Repair Historic Features and Materials 



Repairing surface treatment, materials and edges. For 
example, by applying a traditional material to a stabi- 
lized subsurface base or patching a canal corridor re- 
taining wall. 



Replacing or destroying circulation features and materi- 
als when repair is possible. For example, not salvaging 
and reusing historic stone walk material. 




At the Herbert Hoover National Historic Site in West Branch, Iowa, the integrity analysis for the landscape 's circulation system revealed that a number 
of streets that existed historically have been substantially altered or are no longer extant. For example, Downey Street (the shaded area running north- 
south in the center of the historic core) formerly served as the entrance road into West Branch from the South. The road was re-routed and replaced 
with Parkside Drive (the larger road to its east). Today, the road trace of Downey Street still connects a number of nineteenth-century residences along 
its right-of-way. (Land and Community Associates) 



69 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



A 75-mile portion of Skyline Drive at 
Shenandoah National Park overlooking the 
Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia required 
the rehabilitation of a 22"-high, dry-laid 
stone wall [opposite]. The new wall was built 
to a height of 27" whereas code normally 
requires a height of 36". The wall was 
constructed of precast concrete, clad with 
split stone and mortar joints [center]. To 
achieve visual compatibility, recessed 
mortar joints were arranged in a random 
pattern [bottom], (courtesy NPS and Paul 
Daniel Mariott) 








70 



REHABILITATION GUIDELINES 



Replace Deteriorated Historic Materials and Features 



Using physical evidence of form, detailing and align- 
ment to reproduce a deteriorated circulation feature. If 
using the same kind of material is not technically, eco- 
nomically or environmentally feasible, then a compat- 
ible substitute material may be considered. For example, 
replacing in kind decayed timber edging along a his- 
toric trail route. 



Removing a circulation feature that is deteriorated and 
not replacing it, or replacing it with a new feature that 
does not convey the same visual appearance. For ex- 
ample, replacing a set of stairs with a wall or terrace. 



Design for the Replacement of Missing Historic Features 



Designing and installing new circulation features when 
the historic feature is completely missing. It may be an 
accurate restoration using historical, pictorial and physi- 
cal documentation; or be a new design that is compat- 
ible with the historic character of the landscape. For 
example, reinstating a lost park entrance at a historic 
access point. 



Creating a false historical appearance because the re- 
placed feature is based on insufficient historical, picto- 
rial and physical documentation. 

Introducing a new circulation feature that is incompat- 
ible with the historic character of the landscape. For 
example, using a standardized concrete barrier along a 
historic parkway. 




71 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Alterations/Additions for the New Use 



Designing and installing compatible new circulation fea- 
tures when required by the new use to assure the pres- 
ervation of historic character of the landscape. For ex- 
ample, controlling and limiting new curb cuts, driveways, 
and intersections along a historic road. 



Placing a new feature where it may cause damage, or 
is incompatible with the historic circulation. For example, 
adding new driveways, intersections, and "neck outs" 
along a historic road. 

Locating any new circulation feature in such a way that 
it detracts from or alters the historic circulation 
pattern. For example, installing a new bike path when 
an existing historic path can accommodate the new 
use. 

Introducing a new circulation feature which is in an 
appropriate location, but making it visually incompatible 
in terms of its alignment, surface treatment, width, edge 
treatment, grade, materials or infrastructure. For 
example, installing a new parking lot in a non-significant 
location, but utilizing paving materials and patterns which 
are incongruous with the landscape's historic character. 




To provide access to the historic earthworks at the Stones River National Battlefield in Murfreesboro, Tennessee, an interpretive boardwalk was 
installed [preceding page and above] to allow visitors access to the resources while protecting the earthworks themselves, (courtesy NPS) 

72 



REHABILITATION GUIDELINES 



WATER FEATURES 
Identify, Retain, and Preserve Historic Features and Materials 



Recommended 



Not Recommended 



Identifying, retaining and preserving existing water fea- 
tures and water sources such as retention ponds, pools, 
and fountains prior to beginning project work. Document- 
ing the shape, edge and bottom condition/material; water 
level, sound and reflective qualities; and associated plant 
and animal life, and water quality. 



Executing project work that impacts water features, and 
associated hydrology, without undertaking an existing 
conditions survey. For example, filling in a pond that 
was historically used for farm or recreation purposes. 



Evaluating the condition, and, where applicable, the evo- 
lution of water features over time. For example, assess- 
ing water quality and/or utilizing archeological techniques 
to determine the changing path of a watercourse. 



Executing project work without understanding its im- 
pact on water features. For example, placing a section 
of stream in a culvert or concrete channel. 




As part of a cultural landscape inventory, these remnants of a sawmill dam were inventoried at the Ozark National Scenic Riverways near Van 
Buren, Missouri. These surviving features suggest the former land uses of the region, (courtesy NPS) 



73 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 





Prior to rehabilitation project work, this five-acre wading pool in Martin Luther King Park in Buffalo. New York, was evaluated to understand its historic 
design and use. It was determined that, although the pool and poolhouse were in disrepair, they possessed a high level of integrity. (LANDSCAPES) 

74 



REHABILITATION GUIDELINES 



Protect and Maintain Historic Features and Materials 



Protecting and maintaining water features by use of non- 
destructive methods in daily, seasonal and cyclical 
tasks. For example, cleaning leaf litter or mineral de- 
posits from drainage inlets or outlets. 

Maintaining a water feature's mechanical, plumbing and 
electrical systems to insure appropriate depth of water 
or direction of flow. For example, maintaining the timing 
and sequencing mechanisms for irrigation systems. 



Failing to undertake preventive maintenance of water 
features and materials. 

Utilizing maintenance methods which destroy or degrade 
water features, for example, the use of harsh chemical 
additives for maintaining water quality. 

Allowing mechanical systems to fall into a state of dis- 
repair, resulting in changes to the water feature. For 
example, failing to maintain a pool's aeration system 
thus leading to algae growth. 



Repair Historic Features and Materials 



Repairing water features by reinforcing materials or aug- 
menting mechanical systems. For example, patching a 
crack in an pond liner or repairing a failed pump mecha- 
nism. 



Replacing or removing features or systems when repair 
is possible. For example, abandoning a silted-in reten- 
tion pond. 




Jamaica Pond has an ongoing erosion problem, exacerbated by wave action. To stabilize the shoreline, this stone rip-rap was modeled after the original 
detail implemented by the Olmsted firm. (Pressley Associates and Boston Parks & Recreation) 



75 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Replace Deteriorated Historic Materials and Features 



Using existing physical evidence of form, depth and 
detailing to reproduce a deteriorated water feature. If 
using the same kind of material is not technically, eco- 
nomically, or environmentally feasible, then a compat- 
ible substitute material may be considered. For example, 
replacing a lead pond liner with one made of plastic 



Removing a water feature that is unrepairable and not 
replacing it, or replacing it with a new feature that does 
not convey the same visual appearance. For example, 
replacing a single orifice nozzle with a spray nozzle, 
thus changing the fountain's historic character from a 
singular stem of water to a mist-like stream. 



Design for the Replacement of Missing Historic Features 



Designing and installing a new water feature when the 
historic feature is completely missing. It may be an 
accurate restoration using historical, pictorial and 
physical documentation; or be a new design that is 
compatible with the historic character of the landscape. 
For example, replacing a lost irrigation feature using 
materials that convey the same visual appearance. 



Creating a false historical appearance because the 
replaced feature is based on insufficient historical, 
pictorial and physical documentation. 

Introducing a new design that is incompatible with the 
historic character of the landscape. For example, 
replacing a natural pond with a manufactured pool. 




76 



REHABILITATION GUIDELINES 




Rehabilitation work in Columbus Park included the South waterfall, cascades, rocky brook and associated landscape in Jens Jensen s most 
extant and authenticated park in Chicago, Illinois. Recognizing that park visitors would wish to gain access to the water's edge, plant materials 
were installed with an additional set back and additional stones were provided to accommodate safe passage - all to insure the health and 
vigor of new plantings. This work was done while still protecting and maintaining character-defining features, materials and finishes. (Chicago 
Park District Archives, ca. 1938 and author, 1995) 

77 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Alterations/Additions for the New Use 



Designing and installing a compatible new water feature 
when required by the new use to assure the preservation 
of historic character of the landscape. For example, siting 
a new retention basin in a secondary, or non-significant 
space in the cultural landscape. 



Placing a new water feature where it may cause damage, 
or is incompatible with the historic character, such as 
adding a water slide. 

Locating any new water feature in such a way that it 
detracts from or alters the historic character of the 
landscape. For example, installing a "period" fountain 
where one never existed. 



Introducing a new water feature which is in an 
appropriate location, but is visually incompatible in terms 
of its shape, edge, and bottom condition/material; or 
water level, movement, sound, and reflective quality. For 
example, introducing a wading pool in a non-significant 
space, but utilizing non traditional materials and colors. 




The Polly Pond in Downing Park in Newburgh, New York, had lost its historic shape over time through various reconfigurations, [top right] The pond 
also suffered from declining water quality and siltation. As part of a rehabilitation project, the water feature was reconfigured to better reflect its historic 
form and alignment [top left] ca. 1 905. Modern intrusions at the water's edge were also removed at this time, [bottom] and the pond's edge was stabilized 
to accommodate contemporary use. (LANDSCAPES and Downing Park Planning Committee) 

78 



REHABILITATION GUIDELINES 



STRUCTURES. FURNISHINGS AND OBJECTS 
Identify, Retain, and Preserve Historic Features and Materials 



Recommended 

Identifying, retaining and preserving existing buildings, 
structures, furnishings and objects prior to beginning 
project work. For example, gazebos and bridges, play- 
ground equipment and drinking fountains, benches and 
lights, and statuary and troughs. Documenting the rela- 
tionship of these features to each other, their surrounds, 
and their material compositions. 



Not Recommended 



Undertaking project work that impacts buildings, struc- 
tures, furnishings, and objects without executing an "ex- 
isting conditions" survey. 



Evaluating the condition and determining the age of struc- 
tures, furnishings and objects. For example, utilizing 
Historic Structure Inventories and historic aerial photo- 
graphs to understand the relationship of barns, windmills, 
silos and water troughs in a ranch compound or the 
placement of light standards and benches along park 
paths. 



Undertaking work without understanding the significance 
of structures, furnishings and objects. For example, re- 
moving an arbor that defines the axis of a garden or 
fence posts that delineate the limits of a vineyard. 



Retaining the historic relationships between the land- 
scape and its buildings, structures, furnishings and 
objects. 



Removing or relocating structures, furnishings and ob- 
jects, thus destroying or diminishing the historic 
relationship between the landscape and these features. 
For example, relocating a bridge from its historic cross- 
ing point or relocating a historic flagpole to a new location. 




As part of a preservation plan for Magnolia Cemetery, Charleston, South Carolina, all iron fences and burial markers were evaluated for their 
existing physical condition, (author, 1994) 



79 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Protect and Maintain Historic Features and Materials 



Protecting and maintaining buildings, structures, furnish- 
ings and objects by use of non-destructive methods and 
daily, cyclical and seasonal tasks. This may include 
rust or limited paint removal, and reapplication of pro- 
tective coating systems. For example, painting metal 
wrought iron fences or repointing masonry to match origi- 
nal mortar material, color and profiles. 



Failing to undertake preventive maintenance for struc- 
tures, furnishings and objects, resulting in their damage 
or loss. For example, failing to stop water infiltration at 
roofs and foundations. 

Utilizing maintenance practices and materials that are 
harsh, abrasive, orunproven. For example, using only 
aggressive and potentially damaging cleaning methods 
such as grit blasting on wood, brick, or soft stone or 
using harsh chemicals on masonry or metals. 







As part of a recent landscape inventory, small-scale features that illustrate past farming technolo- 
gies, such as this hay rake [top left] at the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, have been 
documented, (courtesy NPS) This historic light pole base [with an acanthus leaf motif] in Chicago's 
Washington Park [opposite right] has been carefully maintained and protected. The historic 
fixture serves as a rare surviving prototype for the park, almost all of which have been lost over 
time, (author, 1992) The same approach has also been taken for this cobblestone stoop deco- 
ration [above] at a summer cottage along the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway. (courtesy NPS) 












v 

y '■"••■■■. .- 



^. 




80 



REHABILITATION GUIDELINES 



Repair Historic Features and Materials 



Repairing features and materials of buildings, structures, 
furnishings or objects by reinforcing historic materials. 
For example, returning a children's swing to good work- 
ing order, or reshaping a section of a deformed monkey 
bar. 



Replacing or destroying a feature of structures, furnish- 
ings or objects when repair is possible. For example, 
replacing a pavilion's tile roof with physically or visually 
incompatible roofing; or, removing a non-working his- 
toric light fixture, rather than rewiring it. 



Replace Deteriorated Historic Materials and Featves 



Using existing physical evidence of form, material and 
detailing to reproduce a deteriorated structure, furnish- 
ing or object. If using the same kind of material is not 
technically, economically, or environmentally feasible, 
then a compatible substitute material may be consid- 
ered. For example, replacing a cast stone bench with a 
new casting from the original mould. 



Removing a structure, furnishing, or object that is dete- 
riorated and not replacing it, or replacing it with a new 
feature that does not convey the same visual appear- 
ance. For example, removing a wooden rustic footbridge 
and replacing it with a concrete bridge. 



Design for the Replacement of Missing Historic Features 



Designing and installing new structures, furnishings and 
objects when the historic features are missing. It may 
be an accurate restoration using historical, pictorial and 
physical documentation; or be a new design that is com- 
patible with the historic character of the landscape. For 
example, replacing a picnic shelter with one of a new 
compatible design. 



Creating a false historical appearance because the re- 
placed feature is based on insufficient historical, pictorial 
and physical documentation. 

Introducing a new design that is incompatible with the 
historic character of the landscape. For example, re- 
placing a lost wooden fence with chain link fence. 



r A 



BARRIER WALLS 



to- 




....»! - i<f r— 




ROUGH CUT STONE 

2-6" I 




ROUGH FACED ASHLAR - GRANITE COPING 

2-6" 1 





CONCRETE - ROUGH CUT STONE FACING 




All parkway furnishings along the George Washington Parkway were inventoried prior to rehabilitation work. The parkway, which spans over 
forty years of construction between 1929 and 1970, includes a variety of construction techniques for its barrier walls. These construction 
details are now being utilized to aid in current repair work. (HABS) 



81 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 





The siting and treatment of furnishings should always be care- 
fully considered. Here at "Eagle's Nest," the Vanderbilt estate 
in Centerport, Long Island [top], the visitor's first impression 
consists of randomly sited feces, objects and signage. As 
illustrated by this "not recommended" example, not all addi- 
tions need to be on a large scale to compromise the integrity of 
a resource. Often, to aid in a landscape's interpretation, dis- 
crete signage, markers, or wayside stations may be added — 
and their siting should be carefully considered. Successful 
examples here include a carefully placed sign, such as this 
wayside station, that interprets "The Pastoral Zone" at Point 
Reyes, California [center right]; a trail route marker, such as 
this granite feather leaf, that interprets downtown Asheville, 
North Carolina's Art Deco Age [above]; or even discrete infor- 
mation kiosks. This one in Central Park orients hundreds of 
visitors daily and is easily reversible [bottom right]. 



82 



REHABILITATION GUIDELINES 




For some landscapes that have little remaining integrity, yet significant historical associations, a new design, complete with three-dimensional 
interpretive tools may highlight a landscape 's history to a visiting public. Two representative examples include Franklin Court and Welcome 
Park in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. These solutions include the "ghosting" of historic structures based on archeological investigations, on 
three-dimensional objects, and a variety of signage. 



83 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Alterations/Additions for the New Use 



Designing and installing a new structure, furnishing or 
object when required by the new use, which is compat- 
ible with the preservation of the historic character of the 
landscape. For example, constructing a new farm out- 
building utilizing traditional building materials or installing 
appropriately scaled and detailed signage. 



Placing a new structure, furnishing, or object where it 
may cause damage, or is incompatible with the historic 
character of the landscape. For example, constructing 
a new maintenance facility in a primary space. 

Locating any new structure, furnishing or object in such 
a way that it detracts from or alters the historic charac- 
ter of the landscape. For example, installing a "period" 
gazebo that was never present in the cultural landscape. 



Introducing a new structure, furnishing or object in an 
appropriate location, but making it visually incompat- 
ible in mass, scale, form, features, materials, texture or 
color. For example, constructing a visitors' center that 
is incompatible with the historic character of the cul- 
tural landscape. 





A section of the wall surrounding the Dorchester North Burying Ground in Massachusetts was in a state of advanced deterioration, [top] Rather 
than reconstruct the failing wall along the main entrance area, only its piers were replaced, [bottom left] The area of wall between these piers was 
replaced with an iron fence, [bottom right] This approach was selected to improve the perceived safety and security of the burial ground, thus 
allowing for visual access into the burial ground, where it was previously enclosed, (author, 1993 and Boston Parks) 

84 



REHABILITATION GUIDELINES 





As part of a comprehensive rehabilitation project for Prospect Park's Long Meadow, in Brooklyn, New York, a non-historic ball field was 
relocated to minimize its impact on the great greensward. Here, the backstop and associated fences are realigned along a woodland edge. 
The new fencing is limited in scope, and painted black to recede into the viewshed. (Prospect Park Alliance) 

85 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 

Although the work in the following sections is quite often an important aspect of rehabilitation projects, 
its is usually not part of the overall process of rehabilitating character-defining features (maintenance, 
repair and limited replacement); rather, such work is assessed for its potential negative impact on the 
landscape's historic character. For this reason, particular care must be taken not to obscure, alter, or 
damage character-defining features. 

ACCESSIBILITY CONSIDERATIONS 



Identifying the cultural landscape's character-defining 
features, materials and finishes so that accessibility 
code-required work will not result in their damage or 
loss. 



Undertaking code-required alterations before identifying 
those features, materials and finishes which are char- 
acter-defining and must therefore be preserved. 



Complying with barrier-free access requirements, in such 
a way that character-defining features, materials and 
finishes are preserved. For example, widening existing 
stone walks by adding new stone adjacent to it to achieve 
the desired width. 



Damaging or destroying character-defining features in 
attempting to comply with accessibility requirements. 
For example, paving over gravel walks with blacktop. 



Working with local accessibility and preservation spe- 
cialists to determine the most appropriate solution to 
access problems which will have the least impact on 
character-defining features. 



Altering, character-defining features, materials and fin- 
ishes without consulting with local experts. 



Providing barrier-free access that promotes indepen- 
dence for the disabled person to the highest degree 
practicable, while preserving character-defining land- 
scape features, materials and finishes. For example, 
incorporating wider sidewalks only at intersections where 
ramps are being installed, leaving the main runs of his- 
toric sidewalks in place. 



Making access modifications that do not provide a rea- 
sonable balance between independent, safe access and 
preservation of character-defining landscape features, 
materials and finishes. For example, replacing three foot 
wide stone, brick, or historic concrete sidewalks with 
new wider concrete sidewalks 




This accessibility solution for Denver, Colorado's Civic Center, retains character-defining features and visual relationships. The new ramp 
is not visible from the plaza's east-west vista and, thus, respects its symmetrical design, (author, 1993) 



86 



REHABILITATION GUIDELINES 



Finding solutions to meet accessibility requirements 
that minimize the impact on the cultural landscape, for 
example, retaining the original character-defining en- 
trance steps and placing the access ramp at a side or 
secondary entrance. 



Making modifications for accessibility without consider- 
ing the impact on the cultural landscape. For example, 
introducing a new access element (ramp or lift) that de- 
stroys the symmetry of a foundation planting along a 
building's main facade. 



HEALTH AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 



Identifying the cultural landscape's character-defining 
features, materials and finishes so that code-related work 
will not result in their damage or loss. 

Complying with health and safety code requirements in 
such a manner that character-defining features, materi- 
als and finishes are preserved. For example, recognizing 
standards for the application of herbicides. 

Removing toxic materials only after thorough testing has 
been conducted and only after less invasive abatement 
methods have been shown to be inadequate. 



Providing workers with appropriate personal protective 
equipment for hazards found in the worksite. 

Working with local code officials to investigate systems, 
methods, or devices of equivalent or superior effective- 
ness and safety to those prescribed by code so that 
unnecessary alterations can be avoided. 

Upgrading character-defining features to meet health and 
safety codes in a manner that assures their preserva- 
tion. For example, upgrading a historic stairway without 
destroying its character-defining handrails and balus- 
trades. 

Installing safety-related systems that result in the re- 
tention of character-defining features, materials, and 
finishes; for example, fire-suppression systems or seis- 
mic retrofits. 

Applying the necessary materials to add protection to 
character-defining features, materials and finishes. For 
example, applying fire retardant, intumescent paint coat- 
ings to a deck to add thermal protection to its steel. 

Adding new features to meet health and safety codes in 
a manner that preserves adjacent character-defining fea- 
tures, materials and finishes. For example, providing a 
new fire access route along a derelict historic corridor. 



Undertaking code-required alterations before identifying 
those features, materials and finishes which are char- 
acter-defining and must therefore be preserved. 

Altering, damaging or destroying character-defining fea- 
tures, materials and finishes while making modifications 
to a cultural landscape to comply with safety codes. 

Destroying a cultural landscape's character-defining fea- 
tures, materials and finishes without careful testing and 
without considering less invasive abatement methods. 

Removing unhealthful materials without regard to per- 
sonal and environmental safety. 

Making changes to cultural landscapes without first ex- 
ploring equivalent health and safety systems, methods, 
or devices that may be less damaging to character- 
defining features, materials and finishes. 

Damaging or obscuring character-defining features, 
materials and finishes or adjacent areas in the process 
of doing work to meet code requirements. 



Covering character-defining features with fire resistant 
sheathing which results in altering their visual appear- 
ance. 



Using materials intended to provide additional protec- 
tion, such as fire-retardant coatings, if they damage or 
obscure character-defining features, materials and fin- 
ishes. 

Radically changing, damaging or destroyingcharacter- 
defining features, materials and finishes when adding 
new code-required features. 



87 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS 



Identifying the cultural landscape's character-defining 
features, materials and finishes so that environmental 
protection-required work will not result in their damage 
or loss. 



Undertaking environmental protection-required work be- 
fore identifying those features, materials and finishes 
which are character-defining and must therefore be pre- 
served. 



Complying with environmental protection regulations in 
such a manner that character-defining features, materi- 
als and finishes are preserved. For example, protecting 
historic vegetation in which rare and endangered spe- 
cies nest. 



Altering, damaging, or destroying character-defining fea- 
tures, materials and finishes while making modifications 
to a cultural landscape to comply with environmental 
protection regulations. 



Working with environmental protection officials to inves- 
tigate systems, methods, devices or technologies of 
equivalent or superior effectiveness to those prescribed 
by regulation so that unnecessary alterations can be 
avoided. 



Making changes to cultural landscapes without first ex- 
ploring equivalent environmental protection systems, 
methods, devices or technologies that may be less dam- 
aging to historic features, materials and finishes. 



Reclaiming or re-establishing natural resources in a 
manner that promotes the highest degree of environ- 
mental protection, while preserving significant historic 
features, materials and finishes. For example, reclaim- 
ing a wetland to comply with applicable environmental 
regulations, while re-establishing the feature as it ap- 
peared historically. 



Making environmental protection modifications that do 
not provide a reasonable balance between improved 
environmental conditions and the preservation of his- 
toric features, materials and finishes. 



ENERGY EFFICIENCY 



Retaining and maintaining those energy efficient fea- 
tures or parts of features of the landscape. For example, 
maintaining vegetation which performs passive solar 
energy functions. 

Improving energy efficiency of existing features through 
non-destructive means. For example, utilizing a recir- 
culating system in a fountain rather than uncontrolled 
discharge to a storm system. 



Removing or altering those features or parts of features 
which play an energy conserving role. For example, re- 
moving a historic windbreak. 

Replacing energy inefficient features rather than improv- 
ing their energy conservation potential. For example, 
replacing an entire historic light standard rather than 
retrofitting the fixture to be more efficient. 



88 



Standards for Restoration && 
Guidelines for Restoring Cultural 
Landscapes 





When the property's design, 
architectural, or historical 
significance during a particular 
period of time outweighs the 
potential loss of extant materials, 
features, spaces, and finishes that 
characterize other historical periods; 
when there is substantial physical 
and documentary evidence for the 
work; and when contemporary 
alterations and additions are not 
planned, Restoration may be 
considered as a treatment Prior to 
undertaking work, a particular 
period of time, i.e., the restoration 
period, should be selected and 
justified, and a documentation plan 
for Restoration developed. 




Standards for Restoration 









Restoration is defined as the act or 
process of accurately depicting the form, 
features, and character of a property as it 
appeared at a particular period of time by 
means of the removal of features from 
other periods in its history and 
reconstruction of missing features from 
the restoration period. The limited and 
sensitive upgrading of mechanical, 
electrical, and plumbing systems and 
other code-required work to make 
properties functional is appropriate within 
a restoration project. 



1 . A property will be used as it was historically or be given a new use which reflects 
the property's restoration period. 

2. Materials and features from the restoration period will be retained and preserved. 
The removal of materials or alteration of features, spaces, and spatial relationships 
that characterize the period will not be undertaken. 

3. Each property will be recognized as a physical record of its time, place, and use. 
Work needed to stabilize, consolidate and conserve materials and features from the 
restoration period will be physically and visually compatible, identifiable upon close 
inspection, and properly documented for future research. 

4. Materials, features, spaces, and finishes that characterize other historical 
periods will be documented prior to their alteration or removal. 

5. Distinctive materials, features, finishes, and construction techniques or examples 
of craftsmanship that characterize the restoration period will be preserved. 

6. Deteriorated features from the restoration period will be repaired rather than 
replaced. Where the severity of deterioration requires replacement of a distinctive 
feature, the new feature will match the old in design, color, texture, and, where 
possible, materials. 

7. Replacement of missing features from the restoration period will be substantiated 
by documentary and physical evidence. A false sense of history will not be created 
by adding conjectural features, features from other properties, or by combining 
features that never existed together historically . 

8. Chemical or physical treatments, if appropriate, will be undertaken using the 
gentlest means possible. Treatments that cause damage to historic materials will 
not be used. 

9. Archeological resources affected by a project will be protected and preserved in 
place. If such resources must be disturbed, mitigation measures will be undertaken. 

1 0. Designs that were never executed historically will not be constructed. 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Introduction 

Ratherthan maintaining and preserving a landscape as 
it has evolved over time, the expressed goal of the 
Standards For Restoration and Guidelines for 
Restoring Cultural Landscapes is to make the 
landscape appear as it did at a particular-and most 
significant-time in its history. First, those materials and 
features from the "restoration period" are identified, 
based on thorough historical research. Next, features 
from the restoration period are maintained, protected, 
repaired (i.e., stabilized, consolidated, and conserved) 
and replaced, if necessary. As opposed to other 
treatments, the scope of work in Restoration can 
include removal of features from other periods; missing 
features from the restoration period may be replaced, 
based on documentary and physical evidence, using 
traditional materials or compatible substitute materials. 
The final guidance emphasizes that only those designs 
that can be documented as having been built should be 
re-created in a restoration project. 



H Identify, Retain, and Preserve Materials and 
Features from the Restoration Period 

The guidance for the treatment Restoration begins with 
recommendations to identify the form and detailing of 
those existing materials and features that are significant 
to the restoration period as established by historical 
research and documentation. Thus, guidance on 
identifying, retaining, and preserving features 
from the restoration period is always given first. An 
overall evaluation of existing conditions should always 
begin at this level. The character of a cultural landscape 
is defined by its spatial organization and land patterns; 
features such as topography, vegetation, and 
circulation; and materials, such as an embedded 
aggregate pavement. This step must include archival 
research, survey of existing conditions and the 
development of period plans. 




macmi 

o 




CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT: 
SITE HISTORY. EXISTING CONDITIONS & ANALYSIS 

VANDERBILT MANSION 
NATIONAL HISTORIC SITE 

HYDE PARK. NEW YORK 



LANDSCAPES, WESTPORT. CONNECTICUT 

PATRJCIA M CTDONNELL ASLA. APA, CHARLES A BIRNBAUM. ASLA 

WTTH CYNTHIA ZATTZEVSKY, PhD 

26: CORE AREA COMPOSITE ANALYSIS 
1895-190S/1938-1941/1990-1991 



Restoration of the landscape as it appeared between 1830-1939 is the selected approach for the core area of the Vanderbilt Estate. Three 
historic periods in its development: 1895-1905; 1938-1941; and 1990-1991, with their character-defining spatial relationships and features were 
noted on period plans. A high level of accuracy and detail is essential to the success of any restoration project. (LANDSCAPES) 



92 



RESTORATION GUIDELINES 



H Protect and Maintain Materials 
Features from the Restoration Period 



and n Repair Features and Materials from the 

Restoration Period 



After identifying those existing materials and features 
from the restoration period that must be retained in the 
process of Restoration work, then protecting and 
maintaining them is addressed. Protection generally 
involves the least degree of intervention and is 
preparatory to other work; it may be accomplished 
through permanent or temporary measures. Such 
actions could include the installation of temporary 
fencing around a vulnerable earthwork. Maintenance 
includes daily, seasonal, and cyclical tasks, and the 
techniques, methods and materials used to implement 
them. Repointing a stone burial marker from the 
restoration period is one example. 

Once a restoration has been undertaken, an increased 
commitment to sustain the restoration period 
appearance will be necessary. Because of the dynamic 
nature of some features, particularly topography, 
vegetation and water, a landscape will exhibit cyclical 
changes, growth, and reproduction. Therefore, in some 
cases, maintenance efforts may need to be more 
elaborate. 



Next, when the physical condition of parts of features 
from the restoration period requires additional work, 
repairing is recommended. Restoration guidance 
focuses on those features and materials that are 
significant to the period. Consequently, guidance for 
repairing a historic material, such as masonry, again 
begins with the least degree of intervention possible, 
such as strengthening fragile or crumbling materials 
through consolidation (ex. Applying an inorganic 
substance such as barium hydroxide to friable masonry 
or applying epoxy consolidants to extensively 
deteriorated wood), when appropriate, and repointing 
with mortar of an appropriate strength. Repairing 
includes patching, splicing, or otherwise reinforcing 
materials using recognized preservation methods. 
Similarly, portions of a historic structural system of a 
footbridge could be reinforced using contemporary 
material such as steel rods. In Restoration, repairing 
may also include the limited replacement in-kind of 
extensively deteriorated materials or parts of features, 
and using surviving prototypes as a model. Using 
material which matches the old in design, color, and 




Commemorative markers, such as this one that notes the emigrant graves at Robidoux Pass on the Oregon Trail, (near Scotts Bluff National 
Monument, Nebraska) were installed by the Daughters of the American Revolution. The historic marker and graves have been protected with 
a perimeter wire-woven fence, (courtesy NPS) 



93 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



texture is always the preferred option; however, 
substitute material is acceptable if the new material 
conveys the same visual appearance as the historic 
period. Creating a mold of an iron fence finial to replace 
another finial that is extensively deteriorated is one 
example. 

H Replace Extensively Deteriorated Features 
from the Restoration Period 

In Restoration, replacing an entire feature from the 
restoration period, such as an arbor, pool, or bench, that 
is too deteriorated to repair may be appropriate. 
Together with documentary evidence, any remaining 
physical fabric of the historic feature should be used as 
a model for the replacement. Using the same kind of 
material is preferred; however, compatible substitute 
material may be considered. When possible, new work 
should be unobtrusively dated to guide future research 
and treatment. 

If documentary and physical evidence are not available 
to provide an accurate re-creation of missing features, 
the treatment Rehabilitation might be a better overall 
approach to project work. 





A section of a historic wall at Stan Hywet Hall in Akron, Ohio, was in need of restoration. Here, the limited replacement of a section of the wall 
was undertaken utilizing surviving stone and stones that matched the old in form, size, and color. Compatible substitute material could also 
have been used, (author, 1993) 



94 



RESTORATION GUIDELINES 




The area known as the music pavilion at Tower Grove Park in St. Louis, Missouri, had been badly deteriorated including its central pavilion, 
marble busts, radiating walks, lawn areas and curbing. Utilizing photographic documentation, [top] the pavilion [opposite top right] and its 
associated landscape were restored to portray the pavilion as it would have appeared at a certain time. For example, the marble busts of 
eminent composers were replaced with pre-cast concrete replicas of the originals [bottom, foreground]. (Tower Grove Park) 

95 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



H Remove Existing Features from Other 
Historic Periods 



M Re-Create Missing 
Restoration Period 



Features from the 



All cultural landscapes represent a continuum overtime, 
but in Restoration, the goal is to depict the landscape 
as it appeared during a particular time in its history. 
Thus, work is included to remove or alter existing historic 
features that do not represent the restoration period. 
This could include features such as parking lots, modern 
farm equipment or timberform play structures. Prior to 
removing or altering spatial organization and land 
patterns; and features and materials that characterize 
other historic periods, they should be documented to 
guide future research and treatment. 



This Demolition Plan, prepared as part of the restoration for the 
Tao House Courtyard, at the Eugene O'Neill National Historic Site 
[below] in Danville, California, reflects the removal of features that 
were built after the period of significance. Those features 
removed, including walks, steps, patio and plant materials, may be 
attributed to a later design by landscape architect Ted 
Osmundson. (courtesy NPS) 



MostRestoration projects involve re-creating features 
that were significant to the landscape at a particular 
time, but are now missing. Examples could include a 
lost outbuilding, path or fence. Each missing feature 
should be substantiated by documentary and physical 
evidence. Without sufficient documentation for these 
"re-creations," an accurate depiction cannot be 
achieved. Combining features that never existed 
together historically can also create a false sense of 
history. Using traditional materials to depict lost 
features is always the preferred approach; however, 
using compatible substitute material is an acceptable 
alternative in Restoration because, as emphasized, 
the goal of this treatment is to replicate the "appearance" 
of the cultural landscape at a particular time, not to retain 
and preserve all historic materials as they have evolved 
overtime. 




I.INB 



96 



RESTORATION GUIDELINES 



If documentary and physical evidence are 
not available to provide an accurate re- 
creation of missing features, the treatment 
Rehabilitation might be a better overall 
approach to project work. 



H Accessibility Considerations/ 
Health and Safety Considerations/ 
Environmental Considerations and 
Energy Efficiency 

These sections of the Restoration 
guidance address work done to meet 
accessibility requirements; health and 
safety code; environmental requirements; 
or limited retrofitting measures to improve 
energy efficiency. Although this work is 
quite often an important aspect of 
preservation projects, it is usually not part 
of the overall process of protecting, 
stabilizing, conserving, or repairing fea- 
tures from the restoration period; rather, 
such work is assessed for its potential 
negative impact on the landscape's 
character. For this reason, particular care 
must be taken not to obscure, damage, or 
destroy historic materials or features from 
the restoration period in the process of 
undertaking work to meet code and energy 
requirements. 



lose* — — 




Concrete Waft 



-Existing Curb 

— Proposed Curb 




This small footbridge in Central Park's Ramble [above] has been re-created on the basis of historic documentation. The new bridge meets 
current code requirements, yet replicates the historic appearance, while utilizing compatible substitute materials. (Central Park Conservancy) 
The selected treatment for the landscape at the J. L. Bush Storehouse Property, Greenwich, Connecticut, [top] is restoration to the 
impressionist painters' period. Here, sensitive grading preserved historic landscape features while providing access on the alignment of the 
original path. For example, grade relationships to the historic building and hedge have been retained. (LANDSCAPES) 

97 



Guidelines for 

Restoring Cultural Landscapes 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 

SPATIAL ORGANIZATION AND LAND PATTERNS 
Identify, Retain, and Preserve Historic Materials and Features from the Restoration Period 



Recommended 

Identifying, retaining and preserving the existing spatial 
organization and land patterns of the landscape from the 
restoration period. Prior to beginning project work, 
documenting all features which define those 
relationships. This includes the size, configuration, 
proportion and relationship of component landscapes; 
the relationship of features to component landscapes; 
and the component landscapes themselves such as a 
terrace garden, a farmyard, or forest-to-field patterns. 



Not Recommended 

Undertaking project work without understanding the 
effect on the existing spatial organization and land 
patterns. For example, constructing a structure that 
creates new spatial divisions or not researching an 
agricultural property's development history. 





The spatial organization and land patterns of the 211 -acre landscape at the Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site in Hyde Park, New York, 
woodland edges are being restored. This historic aerial photograph from the 1930s, [above] provides excellent documentation of the spatial 
organization during the landscape's period of significance from 1830-1939. Project work re-establishing lost meadow areas that were 
overtaken from 1939 to the present are illustrated on the treatment plan, [top] (Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site and LANDSCAPES) 

100 



RESTORATION GUIDELINES 



Protect and Maintain Features and Materials from the Restoration Period 



Protecting and maintaining features that define spatial 
organization and land patterns from the restoration 
period by non-destructive methods in daily, seasonal 
and cyclical tasks. For example, maintaining 
topography, vegetation, and structures which comprise 
the overall pattern of the cultural landscape. 



Allowing spatial organization and land patterns from the 
restoration period to be altered, for example, through 
incompatible development or neglect. 

Utilizing maintenance methods which destroy or 
obscure the landscape's spatial organization and land 
patterns from the restoration period. For example, 
allowing field succession to obscure a historic farm and 
field pattern. 



Repair Features and Materials from the Restoration Period 



Failing to undertake necessary actions resulting in the 
loss of spatial organization and land patterns. For 
example, allowing a post and rail fence to deteriorate. 



Replacing a feature from the restoration period that 
defines spatial organization and land patterns when 
repairis possible. For example, replacing a hedge when 
the original hedge could have been pruned to generate 
new growth. 





Until recently, spatial relationships at Stan Hywet Hall had changed due to a lack of maintenance [left]. The view, which has recently been 
reinstated, creates a strong visual link between the house and the larger landscape, originally designed by Warren H. Manning [right]. (Stan 
Hywet Hall Foundation) 



101 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Warren Si 




Frederick Law 

OLMSTED 

National Historic Site 
"Fainted" 



1930 Period Plan 


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go — r 

&o 


r^^-r™---:.-....^. 


jilsEI 


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.. 2 ■ 5 






102 



RESTORATION GUIDELINES 



Replace Extensively Deteriorated Features from the Restoration Period 



Replacing in-kind an entire feature from the restoration 
period that defines spatial organization and land patterns 
that is too deteriorated to rejuvenate. For example, 
replanting in-kind an historic orchard. 



Removing a feature from the restoration period that is 
beyond repair and not replacing it; or replacing it with a 
new feature that does not respect the spatial 
organization and land patterns of the restoration period. 
For example, removing a hedgerow and not replanting it. 



Remove Existing Features from Other Historic Periods 



Removing or altering features from other historic periods 
that intrude on the historic spatial organization and land 
patterns. For example, removing a skinned baseball field 
from a historic meadow. 



Failing to remove features from another period, thus 
confusing the depiction of the cultural landscape's 
spatial organization and land patterns during the 
restoration period. For example, failing to remove a chain 
link fence where no fence historically existed. 



Documenting features dating from other periods priorto 
their removal or alteration. If possible, selected 
examples of these features and materials should be 
stored to facilitate future research. 



Failing to document features from other historic periods 
that are removed or altered so that a valuable portion of 
the historic record is lost. 



Re-Create Missing Features from the Restoration Period 



Recreating a missing feature important to the spatial 
organization and land patterns during the restoration 
period based on historical, pictorial and physical 
documentation. 



Constructing a feature that contributes to the overall 
spatial organization and land patterns which was 
thought to have existed during the restoration period, but 
for which there is insufficient documentation; or, 
constructing a feature that was part of the original design 
but was never executed. 




Based on historic plans, photo- 
graphs and tree corings, the ca. 
1930 lawn space at the 
Frederick Law Olmsted National 
Historic Site in Brookline, 
Massachusetts, has been re- 
created through the removal of 
invasive woody species, [oppo- 
site page, top and bootom. and 
opposite left] (courtesy NPS) 
Franklin Park's Country Meadow 
[following page] was one of 
Olmsted's greatest landscape 
achievements~as important his- 
torically [top] as the meadows 
and landscapes of New York 
City's Central Park and 
Brooklyn's Prospect Park. Soon 
after the park's completion, the 
public began playing golf, much 
to the chagrin of Olmsted. 
Restoration of the golf course, 
[bottom] one of the most 
distinguishing features of the 
park, re-claims the expansive 
views and spatial relationships. 
(FLONHS and Boston Parks & 
Recreation) 



103 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 





104 



RESTORATION GUIDELINES 

TOPOGRAPHY 
Identify, Retain, and Preserve Historic Features and Materials from the Restoration Period 



Recommended 



Not Recommended 



Identifying, retaining and preserving the existing 
topography from the restoration period. Documenting 
topographic variation prior to project work, including 
shape, slope, elevation, aspect and contour. For 
example, preparing a topographic survey. 

Evaluating and understanding the cultural landscape's 
topography from the restoration period. For example, 
using archival resources such as plans and aerial 
photographs or, in their absence, archeological analysis 
techniques to understand the historic topography. 



Undertaking project work that impacts topography from 
the restoration period. For example, regrading a cultural 
landscape without knowledge of historic topography. 

Executing project work without understanding its impact 
on topographic resources from the restoration period. 
For example, disturbing archaeological resources and 
watershed systems. 



Protect and Maintain Features and Materials from the Restoration Period 



Protecting and maintaining topography from the 
restoration period by use of non-destructive methods 
and daily, seasonal and cyclical tasks. For example, 
applying adequate sediment and erosion controls to 
protect fragile earthworks from the restoration period. 



Failing to undertake preventive maintenance for 
topography from the restoration period. 

Utilizing maintenance methods which destroy or 
degrade topography from the restoration period. For 
example, using heavily weighted equipment on steep or 
vulnerable slopes. 



Repair Features and Materials from the Restoration Period 



Repair declining topographic features from the 
restoration period. For example, re-excavating a silted 
swale through appropriate regrading or re-establishing 
an eroding agricultural terrace. 



Destroying the shape, slope, elevation or contour of 
topography from the restoration period when repair is 
possible. 




For the Central Burying Ground in Boston, Massachusetts [see earlier reference, page 61] the collapsed free-standing mound tomb, the last 
of its kind remaining in Boston, was successfully repaired. (Boston Parks and Recreation) 



105 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Replace Extensively Deteriorated Features from the Restoration Period 



Using physical evidence of form and detailing to 
reproduce in-kind an entire topographic feature from the 
restoration period. If using the same kind of material is 
not technically, economically, or environmentally 
feasible, then a compatible substitute material may be 
considered. For example, re-establishing earthworks 
around a fort. 



Removing a deteriorated topographic feature from the 
restoration period and not replacing it; or replacing it with 
a new feature that does not convey the same visual 
appearance. For example, changing stepped terracing 
to a curved slope. 



Remove Existing Features from Other Historic Periods 



Removing or altering topographic features from other 
historic periods. For example, reshaping knolls to their 
appearance during the restoration period or removing fill 
to reveal a hollow. 



Failing to remove topographic features from another 
period, thus confusing the depiction of the landscape 
during the restoration period. For example, maintaining 
modern earthen mounds on a historic bowling green. 



Documenting topographic features from other periods 
prior to their alteration or removal. 



Failing to document topographic features from other 
historic periods that are removed or altered so that a 
valuable portion of the historic record is lost. 




106 



RESTORATION GUIDELINES 



Re-Create Missing Features from the Restoration Period 



Recreating a missing topographic feature that existed 
during the restoration period based on historical, 
pictorial and physical documentation. For example, 
recreating a trench and fortification from the restoration 
period based on stratigraphic research. 



Creating a topographic feature which is incompatible 
with the restoration period. For example, constructing a 
topographic feature that was thought to have existed 
during the restoration period, but for which there is 
insufficient information; or, constructing a topographic 
feature that was part of the original design but was never 
executed, thus creating a false historic appearance. 




The landscape of the Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, has evolved dramatically since 1863. [opposite left] Open areas, for example, 
especially those on rocky ground, were covered with woody plants and Little Round Top became forested with redbud (Cercis Canadensis). 
To restore this topographic feature, [above, prior to treatment] invasive plants were removed to portray the second day battle scene, giving a 
sense of the landform of the area and the importance of the land to the bloody encounter that transpired there, (courtesy NPS) 

107 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



VEGETATION 



Identify, Retain, and Preserve Historic Features and Materials from the Restoration Period 



Recommended 



Not Recommended 



Identifying, retaining and preserving the existing 
vegetation from the restoration period prior to project 
work. For example, woodlands, forests, trees, shrubs, 
crops, meadows, planting beds, vines and ground cover. 
Documenting broad cover types, genus, species, 
caliper, and/or size as well as color, scale, form and 
texture. 



Undertaking project work that impacts vegetation from 
the restoration period without executing an "existing 
conditions" survey of plant material. For example, deep- 
tilling soil thus disturbing historic pollen artifacts. 



Evaluating the condition and determining the age of 
vegetation from the restoration period. For example, tree 
coring to determine age. 



Undertaking work without understanding the signifi- 
cance of vegetation from the restoration period. For 
example, removing perennial plantings from the 
restoration period during a clean out of invasive 
vegetation. 



Retaining and perpetuating vegetation from the 
restoration period through propagation, using methods 
such as seed collection and genetic stock cuttings. 



Failing to propagate extant vegetation from the 
restoration period, when few or no known sources for 
replacement are available. For example, removing a 
deteriorating tree without first taking cuttings. 



PCOOD I GC3TOGATIOM - 
Gestore Plan B and Plan C oieas 
Dosed on Sears W plans and 
Period i revisions 



PCGIOD I CD-IAOUTATIOn 
Qapm beds a|ons man p«ns 
sn#r to Sears RQI plans 




VCeCTAOX 6ACDCT1 
Restore paths to ortshol 
locations end |oyc*t — 



The restoration of Reynolda Gardens at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, was based on available historic 
documentation for the period of significance, the long-term maintenance requirements, the surviving plant materials contained within an 
individual garden area, and the need to interpret the garden as it looked at one time to the public. (The Jaeger Group) 



108 



RESTORATION GUIDELINES 



Protect and Maintain Features and Materials from the Restoration Period 



Protecting and maintaining vegetation from the 
restoration period by use of non-destructive methods 
and daily, seasonal and cyclical tasks. For example, 
employing pruning or careful use of herbicides on historic 
fruit trees. 



Failing to undertake preventive maintenance of 
vegetation from the restoration period. 

Utilizing maintenance practices and techniques which 
are harmful to vegetation from the restoration period. For 
example, mowing lawns containing spring bulbs. 



Utilizing maintenance practices which respect habit, 
form, color, texture, bloom, fruit, fragrance, scale and 
context. 



Utilizing maintenance practices and techniques that fail 
to recognize the uniqueness of individual plant materials. 
For example, utilizing soil amendments which may alter 
flower color or poorly-timed pruning and/or application of 
insecticide which may alter fruit production. 



Utilizing historic horticultural and agricultural mainte- 
nance practices when those techniques are critical to 
maintaining the integrity of the vegetation from the 
restoration period. For example, the manual removal of 
dead flowers to ensure continuous bloom. 



Employing contemporary practices when traditional or 
historic can be used. For example, utilizing non- 
traditional harvesting practices when traditional 
practices are still feasible. 



Repair Features and Materials from the Restoration Period 



Rejuvenating historic vegetation from the restoration 
period. For example, by corrective pruning, deep root 
fertilizing, aerating soil, renewing seasonal plantings 
and/or grafting onto historic genetic stock. 



Replacing or destroying vegetation from the restoration 
period when rejuvenation is possible. For example, 
removing a matured shrub and replacing with new 
material when proper pruning may be employed. 




When replacing deteriorated or declining vegetation and the same kind of material is not available, then a substitute material may be considered. 
This material should be of compatible scale, color, form, shape and texture. Considering a mature American elm's pendulous form [left], a 
Japanese zelkova's vase-like form [right], such a substitution of plant materials would not meet the Standards, (author. 1994) 



109 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 







."jTf*: ,, ;'i w r , " , r'f 




-f>li« 









77?e Estate Dr/Ve through the Apple Orchard at Stan Hywet Hall , Akron, Ohio, is being restored to a 1913 design by Warren Manning. Based on 
historic documentation [top] those trees that were inappropriate to the original design were removed [bottom]. (Douglas Reed) 



110 



RESTORATION GUIDELINES 



Replace Extensively Deteriorated Features from the Restoration Period 



Using existing physical evidence of form, habit or 
composition to replace a deteriorated or declining 
vegetation feature from the restoration period. If using the 
same kind of material is not technically, economically, 
or environmentally feasible, then a compatible substitute 
material may be considered. For example, replacing a 
memorial tree with a tree grown from its genetic stock. 



Removing vegetation from the restoration period that has 
deteriorated and not replacing it, or replacing it with a 
new feature that does not convey the same visual 
appearance. For example, removing a blight-ridden 
hedge and replacing it with pyramidal form trees. 



Remove Existing Features from Other Historic Periods 



Removing or altering vegetation from other historic 
periods. For example, removing later foundation 
plantings or successional woodlot growth. 

Documenting vegetation from other periods prior to its 
alteration or removal. If possible, representative 
examples of this vegetation should be saved, cultivated 
and managed, through seed collection and genetic 
stock cuttings, to facilitate future research. 



Failing to remove vegetation from another period, thus 
confusing the depiction of the landscape during the 
restoration period. For example, maintaining a lawn on 
the site of a historic cutting garden. 

Failing to document vegetation from other historic 
periods that is removed or altered so that a valuable 
portion of the historic record is lost. 









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If ■ I » * ^^Tf v 






I *—M ■ .'V 


jHp^" ; 




Sir ^BnaflMk. ^ ^ 










Si— +•.* 


~j& *!#■* -^JfeNHs 




As part of an overall restoration program for each of the gardens at Rancho Los Alamitos in Long Beach, California, close attention has been 
paid to its vegetation features. The Old Garden [1928 and 1996] was overtaken by 40' of bamboo timber, [top left and right] Here, efforts 
include replanting the original boxwood hedge, propagating and replanting genetic stock from the remaining bananas and replanting and 
training cypress to a hedge-form. The Rose Garden has been restored [page 112] including replacing in-kind the original rose trees (only one 
survived) using the original 1927 plan by the Olmsted Brothers [1928, 1995 and 1996]. The Cutting Garden has also been restored, [above 
left and right] which until recently had been maintained as a herb garden. A recent discovery of these plans allowed for the restoration of the 
garden including its herbaceous materials and even the design of the garden bench [1994 and 1996]. (Rancho Los Alamitos Foundation) 



111 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Re-Create Missing Features from the Restoration Period 



Recreating a missing vegetation feature that existed 
during the restoration period based on historical, 
pictorial and physical documentation. For example, 
replanting crop types based on pollen analysis. 



Installing vegetation that was thought to have existed 
during the restoration period, but for which there is 
insufficient documentation; or planting vegetation that 
was part of the original design but was never installed, 
thus creating a false historic appearance. 





112 



RESTORATION GUIDELINES 

CIRCULATION 
Identify, Retain, and Preserve Historic Features and Materials from the Restoration Period 



Recommended 



Not Recommended 



Identifying, retaining and preserving the existing 
circulation features from the restoration period prior to 
beginning project work. All circulation features should be 
documented, from small paths and walks to larger 
transportation corridors such as parkways, highways, 
railroads and canals. Documenting alignment, surface 
and edge treatment, width, grade, materials and 
infrastructure. 



Executing project work that impacts circulation from the 
restoration period. For example, altering the route and 
configuration of a historic bridle path without identifying 
its historic alignment. 



Evaluating and understanding the cultural landscape's 
circulation from the restoration period. Using archival 
resources such as plans and aerial photographs, or, in 
their absence, archeological analysis techniques to 
understand the circulation from the restoration period. 



Executing project work without understanding its impact 
on circulation features from the restoration period. For 
example, changing road widths without a thorough 
evaluation of the historic road. 



GROVE STREET 
ENTRANCE TO BE 
PHASED OUT 



PROPOSED 

SECONDARY 

ENTRANCE- 




CONCENTRATED 
PARKING ALONG 
LAWN AVENUE 



The layout of the circulation system is the centerpiece of Mount Auburn's landscape design, and the least changed aspect of it. Today there 
are about 70 miles of paths and 12 miles of roads. The chronological development of the cemetery's access, circulation and parking has 
resulted in the proposal for protecting and retaining , and in places, restoring the historic circulation design. (The Halvorson Company) 



113 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 

Protect and Maintain Features and Materials from the Restoration Period 



Protecting and maintaining circulation features from the 
restoration period by use of non-destructive methods 
and daily, seasonal and cyclical tasks. For example, 
this may include hand-raking, top-dressing, or rolling 
surface materials. 



Failing to undertake preventive maintenance for 
circulation features from the restoration period. For 
example, permitting a failed drainage system to 
contribute to the degradation and loss of associated 
curbs or erosion of shoulders. 



Utilizing maintenance methods which destroy or 
degrade circulation features from the restoration period. 
For example, using a snow plow over a coarse textured 
pavement. 



Repair Features and Materials from the Restoration Period 



Repair declining circulation features from the restoration 
period by reinforcing the materials that comprise these 
features. Repairs will also generally include the limited 
replacement in-kind or, with compatible substitute 
material, of those extensively deteriorated or missing 
parts of features when there are surviving prototypes. For 
example, replacing in-kind limited sections of capstone 
along a historic parapet. The new work should be 
unobtrusively dated to guide future research and 
treatment. 



Replacing or destroying circulation features from the 
restoration period when repair of materials and limited 
replacement of deteriorated or missing components are 
appropriate. 

Failing to reuse existing surface or edge materials from 
the restoration period when only the substrate requires 
repair. 

Using a substitute material for the replacement part that 
does not convey the visual appearance of the surviving 
parts of the circulation feature from the restoration 
period, or that is physically or environmentally 
incompatible. 



Replace Extensively Deteriorated Features from the Restoration Period 



Using physical evidence of form, detailing and alignment 
to reproduce an entire circulation feature from the 
restoration period. If using the same kind of material is 
not technically, economically, or environmentally 
feasible, then a compatible substitute material may be 
considered. The new work should be unobtrusively dated 
to guide future research and treatment. For example, 
replacing a bulkhead's timber coping along an entire 
waterfront esplanade. 



Removing a circulation feature from the restoration 
period that is unrepairable and not replacing it; replacing 
it with a new feature that does not convey the same visual 
appearance; or failing to document the new work. For 
example, removing a crushed stone carriage road and 
replacing it with a wider asphalt road. 



Remove Existing Features from Other Historic Periods 



Removing or altering circulation features from other 
historic periods. For example, removing a later parking 
lot. 



Failing to remove circulation features from another 
period, thus confusing the depiction of the landscape 
during the restoration period. For example, maintaining 
a modern asphalt path through a historic meadow. 



Documenting circulation features from other historic 
periods prior to their alteration or removal. For example, 
recording cross sections of road and retaining wall 
construction. If possible, representative features should 
be stored for future research. 



Failing to document circulation features from other 
historic periods that are removed or altered so that a 
valuable portion of the historic record is lost. 



114 



RESTORATION GUIDELINES 



Re-Create Missing Features from the Restoration Period 



Recreating a missing circulation feature that existed 
during the restoration period based on historical, pictorial 
and physical documentation. For example, duplicating 
paving patterns based on surviving prototypes. 



Constructing a circulation feature that was thought to 
have existed during the restoration period, butforwhich 
there is insufficient information; or constructing a 
circulation feature that was part of the original design 
but was never executed, thus creating a false historic 
appearance. 






iA 



ipf«»^|^f^^ 





The garden walks constructed 
during the 1920s and 1930s at 
Shadows-on-the-Teche in New 
Iberia, Louisiana, had filled in 
with grass over time [top]. As 
part of the current master plan, 
these walks have been re- 
created using a mixture of 
earth and Portland cement. 
The materials are set in place, 
and water added, [opposite] 
Finally, a gravel top coat is 
packed-in and rolled flat [bot- 
tom]. (Shadows-on-the-Teche) 




115 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



WATER FEATURES 



Identify, Retain, and Preserve Historic Features and Materials from the Restoration Period 



Recommended 

Identifying, retaining and preserving existing water 
features and water sources such as retention ponds, 
pools, and fountains from the restoration period prior to 
project work. Documenting shape, edge and bottom 
condition/ material; water level, movement, sound and 
reflective quality; associated plant and animal life, and 
water quality. 



Not Recommended 

Executing project work that impacts water features and 
associated hydrology from the restoration period, 
without undertaking an "existing conditions" survey. For 
example, filling in a pond that was historically used for 
ornamental orfarming purposes. 



Evaluating the condition of water features from the 
restoration period. Forexamp.le, assessing water quality 
or utilizing archeological techniques to determine the 
path of a watercourse. 



Executing project work without understanding its impact 
on water features from the restoration period. For 
example, placing a section of creek in a culvert or 
concrete channel. 



Protect and Maintain Features and Materials from the Restoration Period 



Protecting and maintaining water features from the 
restoration period by use of non-destructive methods in 
daily, seasonal and cyclical tasks. For example, 
cleaning leaf litter or mineral deposits from drainage 
inlets or outlets. 



Failing to undertake preventive maintenance of water 
features from the restoration period. For example, 
allowing a historic fish pond to fill up with leaf litter. 

Utilizing maintenance methods which destroy or 
degrade water features from the restoration period. For 
example, using harsh chemical additives for maintaining 
water quality. 



Maintaining a waterfeature's mechanical, plumbing and 
electrical systems to insure appropriate depth of water 
or direction of flow. For example, routinely greasing and 
lubricating gate mechanisms for a pond. 



Allowing mechanical systems to fall into a state of 
disrepair, resulting in changes to the waterfeature. For 
example, failing to maintain a sprinkler system on a 
historic golf course. 



Repair Features and Materials from the Restoration Period 



Repair deteriorated waterfeatures from the restoration 
period by reinforcing the materials that comprise these 
features. Repairs will generally include limited 
replacement, in-kind or compatible substitute material, 
of those extensively deteriorated or missing parts of 
features when there are surviving prototypes. For 
example, replacing in-kind corroding iron valves in a 
historic spray pool. The new work should be 
unobtrusively dated to guide future research and 
treatment. 



Replacing or destroying water features from the 
restoration period when repair of materials and limited 
replacement of deteriorated or missing parts are 
appropriate. For example, filling in a historic farm pond 
instead of removing invasive plant materials. 

Using a substitute material for the replacement part that 
does not convey the visual appearance of the surviving 
parts of the waterfeature from the restoration period, or 
is physically or environmentally incompatible. For 
example, replacing marble coping stone with concrete. 



116 



RESTORATION GUIDELINES 



Replace Extensively Deteriorated Features from the Restoration Period 



Using existing physical evidence of form, depth and 
detailing to reproduce an entire water feature from the 
restoration period. If using the same kind of material is 
not technically, economically, or environmentally 
feasible, then a compatible substitute material may be 
considered. The new work should be unobtrusively dated 
to guide future research and treatment. For example, 
replacing a granite watering trough with one of cast 
stone. 



Removing a water feature from the restoration period that 
is unrepairable and not replacing it; replacing it with a 
new feature that does not convey the same visual 
appearance; or failing to document the new work. For 
example, channeling a natural stream into a culverted 
pipe. 



Remove Existing Features from Other Historic Periods 



Removing or altering water features from other historic 
periods. For example, removing a modern retention 
pond. 



Failing to remove water features from another period, 
thus confusing the depiction of the landscape during the 
restoration period. For example, maintaining a 
swimming pool on the site of an historic herb garden. 



Documenting water features from other periods prior to 
their alteration or removal. For example, inventorying and 
cataloguing hydrology, flora and fauna associated with 
the feature. If possible, selected examples of these 
materials or features should be stored to facilitate future 
research. 



Failing to document water features from other historic 
periods that are removed or altered so that a valuable 
portion of the historic record is lost. 



Re-Create Missing Features from the Restoration Period 



Recreating a missing water feature that existed during 
the restoration period based on historical, pictorial and 
physical documentation. For example, recasting a 
fountain from its original mold. 



Constructing a water feature that was thought to have 
existed during the restoration period, but for which there 
is insufficient information; or constructing a waterfeature 
that was part of the original design but was never 
executed, thus creating a false historic appearance. 




At the Joslyn Castle in Omaha, Nebraska, the location of pools believed to be part of the original design by Jens Jensen was confirmed by 
archeology. (Mary Hughes) 

117 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 

STRUCTURES. FURNISHINGS AND OBJECTS 
Identify, Retain, and Preserve Historic Features and Materials from the Restoration Period 



Recommended 

Identifying, retaining and preserving existing structures, 
furnishings and objects from the restoration period prior 
to beginning project work. Documenting the relationship 
of these features to each other, their surrounds, and their 
material compositions. 



Not Recommended 

Executing project work that impacts structures, 
furnishings and objects from the restoration period, 
without undertaking an "existing conditions" survey. For 
example, altering a pale fence that delineates the limits 
of a corral cluster. 



Evaluating the condition of structures, furnishings and 
objects from the restoration period. For example, 
utilizing Historic Structures Reports and aerial 
photography to understand the relationship between 
tracks, trestles and screens at a mining site. 



Executing project work without understanding its impact 
on structures, furnishings and objects from the 
restoration period. For example, removing picnic tables 
and fireplaces from a group camp. 



Protect and Maintain Features and Materials from the Restoration Period 



Protecting and maintaining buildings, structures, 
furnishings and objects from the restoration period by 
use of non-destructive methods in daily, seasonal and 
cyclical tasks. For example, cleaning leaf litter from the 
gutters of a park pavilion. 



Failing to undertake preventive maintenance of 
structures, furnishings and objects from the restoration 
period. For example, allowing a cast iron fence from the 
restoration period to deteriorate. 

Utilizing maintenance methods which destroy or 
degrade structures, furnishings and objects from the 
restoration period. For example, using harsh grit blasting 
techniques to clean historic stone or bronze statuary. 



Maintaining mechanical, plumbing and electrical 
systems for structures and furnishings. For example, 
providing adequate ventilation in a dovecote and 
improving its energy efficiency. 



Allowing mechanical systems to fall into a state of 
disrepair, resulting in changes to a structure, furnishing 
or object. For example, enclosing mechanical systems 
of a poolhouse so they are not adequately ventilated. 



Repair Features and Materials from the Restoration Period 



Repairing deteriorating structures, furnishings and 
objects from the restoration period by reinforcing the 
materials that comprise these features. Repairs will also 
generally include the limited replacement in-kind or with 
compatible substitute material, of those extensively 
deteriorated or missing parts of features when there are 
surviving prototypes, such as roof features, windows, 
bollards and signage. The new work should be 
unobtrusively dated to guide future research and 
treatment. 



Replacing or destroying structures, furnishings and 
objects from the restoration period when repair of 
materials and limited replacement of deteriorated or 
missing parts are appropriate. 

Using a substitute material for the replacement part that 
does not convey the visual appearance of the surviving 
parts of the structure, furnishing or object from the 
restoration period, or that is physically or environmen- 
tally incompatible. For example, replacing a wood slat 
with a recycled plastic one in a historic bench. 



118 



RESTORATION GUIDELINES 






The missing garden gate at Weir Farm National Historic Site [bottom] in Wilton, Connecticut, was restored [top right] through photographic 
documentation [top left] and archeology, (courtesy NPS and Weir Farm National Historic Site) 



119 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Replace Extensively Deteriorated Features from the Restoration Period 



Using existing physical evidence of form, material and 
detailing to reproduce structures, furnishings or objects 
from the restoration period. If using the same kind of 
material is not technically, economically, orenvironmen- 
tally feasible, then a compatible substitute material may 
be considered. The new work should be unobtrusively 
dated to guide future research and treatment. For 
example, replacing a cast stone mileage marker. 



Removing a structure, furnishing or object from the 
restoration period that is unrepairable and not replacing 
it; replacing it with a new feature that does not convey the 
same visual appearance; orfailing to document the new 
work. For example, replacing a deteriorated pier with a 
floating dock. 



Remove Existing Features from Other Historic Periods 

Removing oraltering structures, furnishings and objects Failing to remove structures, furnishings and objects 

from other historic periods. from another period, thus confusing the depiction of the 

cultural landscape during the restoration period. For 
example, maintaining modern sculpture in a historic 
estate. 



Documenting structures, furnishings and objects from 
other periods prior to their alteration or removal. If 
possible, selected examples of these materials or 
features should be stored to facilitate future research. 



Failing to document structures, furnishings and objects 
from other historic periods that are removed or altered so 
that a valuable portion of the historic record is lost. 



Re-Create Missing Features 

Recreating a missing structure, furnishing or object that 
existed during the restoration period based on historical, 
pictorial and physical documentation. For example, 
recasting a garden jardiniere from its original mold or 
duplicating a corn crib from an extant prototype. 



from the Restoration Period 

Constructing a structure, furnishing or object that was 
thought to have existed during the restoration period, but 
forwhich there is insufficient information; or constructing 
a bandstand that was part of the original design but was 
never executed, thus creating a false historic 
appearance. 



Historic signs at Mt. Auburn 
Cemetery, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, typical of the era, 
[opposite] are depicted through 
new castings made from a 
historic prototype. A deterio- 
rated sign from another historic 
burial ground could also be 
restored using this prototype. 
The signature historic street 
lights, unique to Denver, Colo- 
rado, had been lost over time 
to quick-fix solutions. As part of 
a city-wide project to restore 
original streetscape furnish- 
ings, historic fictures were re- 
cast, and installed in their 
appropriate settings. Two ex- 
amples include the single-globe 
fixtures along Speer Boulevard 
[historic, contemporary-before 
and after; opposite page bot- 
tom]; and the downtown double- 
teardrop fixture [historic and two 
contemporary views; opposite 
page top]. (Western History 
Department, Denver Public Li- 
brary, Foster and Marshall) 





120 



RESTORATION GUIDELINES 







121 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Although the work in the following sections is quite often an important aspect of restoration projects, 
its is usually not part of the overall process of restoring character-defining features (maintenance, 
repair and limited replacement); rather, such work is assessed for its potential negative impact on the 
landscape's historic character. For this reason, particular care must be taken not to obscure, alter, or 
damage character-defining features. 

ACCESSIBILITY CONSIDERATIONS 



Identifying the cultural landscape's features, materials 
and finishes from the restoration period so that 
accessibility code-required work will not result in their 
damage or loss. 



Undertaking code-required alterations before identifying 
those features, materials and finishes which are from the 
restoration period and must therefore be preserved. 



Complying with barrier-free access requirements in such 
a way that features, materials and finishes from the 
restoration period are preserved. 



Damaging or destroying restoration period features in 
attempting to comply with accessibility requirements. 



Working with local accessibility and preservation 
specialists to determine the most appropriate solution to 
access problems which will have the least impact on 
character-defining features. 



Altering features, materials and finishes from the 
restoration period without consulting local accessibility 
and preservation experts. 



Providing barrier-free access that promotes indepen- 
dence for the disabled person to the highest degree 
practicable, while preserving significant character- 
defining landscape features, materials and finishes. For 
example, incorporating wider sidewalks only at 
intersections where ramps are being installed, leaving 
the main runs of historic sidewalks in place. 



Making access modifications that do not provide a 
reasonable balance between independent, safe access 
and preservation of landscape features, materials and 
finishes from the restoration period. 



Finding solutions to meet accessibility requirements 
that minimize the impact on the cultural landscape, for 
example, compatible ramps and lifts. 



Making modifications for accessibility without consider- 
ing the impact on the cultural landscape. For example, 
introducing a new access element (ramp or lift) that 
destroys the symmetry of a formal garden. 




At the Eugene O'Neill National Historic Site in Danville, California, original walks that are too narrow by today's accessibility standards were 
retained and a new wheelchair route was defined via reinforced turf, (author, 1994) 



122 



RESTORATION GUIDELINES 





Modifications to the entrance of the Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site in Brookline, Massachusetts, meet accessibility requirements and 
retain significant landscape and architectural features, (courtesy NPS) 

123 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



HEALTH AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 



Identifying the cultural landscape's features, materials 
and finishes from the restoration period so that code- 
related work will not result in their damage or loss. 



Undertaking code-required alterations before identifying 
those features, materials and finishes from the 
restoration period which are character-defining and must 
therefore be preserved. 



Complying with health and safety code requirements, in 
such a mannerthat features, materials and finishes from 
the restoration period are preserved. For example, 
recognizing standards for the removal of lead-based 
paints on play equipment. 



Altering, damaging or destroying features, materials and 
finishes from the restoration period while making 
modifications to a cultural landscape to comply with 
safety codes. 



Removing toxic materials only after thorough testing has 
been conducted and only after less invasive abatement 
methods have been shown to be inadequate. 



Destroying a cultural landscape's features, materials 
and finishes from the restoration period without careful 
testing and without considering less invasive abatement 
methods. 



Providing workers with appropriate personal protective 
equipment for hazards found in the worksite. 



Removing unhealthful materials without regard to 
personal and environmental safety. 



Working with local code officials to investigate systems, 
methods, or devices of equivalent or superior 
effectiveness and safety to those prescribed by code so 
that unnecessary alterations can be avoided. 



Making changes to cultural landscapes without first 
exploring equivalent health and safety systems, 
methods, or devices that may be less damaging to 
features, materials and finishes from the restoration 
period. 



Upgrading features from the restoration period to meet 
health and safety codes in a manner that assures their 
preservation. For example, upgrading a historic stairway 
without destroying handrails and balustrades from the 
restoration period. 



Damaging orobscuring features, materials and finishes 
from the restoration period, in the process of doing work 
to meet code requirements. 



Installing safety-related systems that result in the 
retention of features, materials, and finishes from the 
restoration period; for example, fire-suppression 
systems or seismic retrofits. 



Covering features from the restoration period with fire 
resistant sheathing which results in altering their visual 
appearance. 



Applying the necessary materials to add additional 
protection to features, materials and finishes from the 
restoration period. For example, applying fire retardant, 
intumescent paint coatings to a deck to add thermal 
protection to its steel. 



Using materials intended to provide additional 
protection, such as fire-retardant coatings, if they 
damage or obscure features, materials and finishes from 
the restoration period. 



Adding new features to meet health and safety codes in 
a manner that preserves adjacent features, materials 
and finishes from the restoration period. For example, 
providing a new fire access along a derelict road from the 
restoration period. 



Radically changing, damaging or destroying features, 
materials and finishes from the restoration period when 
adding new code-required features. 



124 



RESTORATION GUIDELINES 



ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS 



Identifying the cultural landscape's features, materials 
and finishes from the restoration period so that 
environmental protection-required work will not result in 
their damage or loss. 

Complying with environmental protection regulations in 
such a manner that features, materials and finishes from 
the restoration period are preserved. For example, 
protecting vegetation from the restoration period in which 
endangered species nest. 

Working with environmental protection officials to 
investigate systems, methods, devices ortechnologies 
of equivalent or superior effectiveness to those 
prescribed by regulation so that unnecessary alterations 
can be avoided. 

Reclaiming or re-establishing natural resources in a 
manner that promotes the highest degree of 
environmental protection, while preserving features, 
materials and finishes from the restoration period. For 
example, reclaiming a wetland to comply with applicable 
environmental regulations, while re-establishing the 
feature as it appeared during the restoration period. 



Undertaking environmental protection-required work 
before identifying those features, materials and finishes 
from the restoration period which must be preserved. 

Altering, damaging, or destroying features, materials 
and finishes from the restoration period while making 
modifications to a cultural landscape to comply with 
environmental protection regulations. 



Making changes to cultural landscapes without first 
exploring equivalent environmental protection systems, 
methods, devices or technologies that may be less 
damaging to historic features, materials and finishes 
from the restoration period. 

Making environmental protection related modifications 
that do not provide a reasonable balance between 
improved environmental conditions and the preservation 
of features, materials and finishes from the restoration 
period. 



ENERGY EFFICIENCY 



Retaining and maintaining those energy-efficient 
features or parts of features of the landscape from the 
restoration period. For example, maintaining vegetation 
from the restoration which performs passive solar energy 
functions. 



Removing or altering those features or parts of features 
from the restoration period which play an energy- 
conserving role. For example, removing a historic 
windbreak. 



Improving energy-efficiency of existing features from the 
restoration period through non-destructive means. For 
example, utilizing a recirculating system in a fountain 
rather than uncontrolled discharge to a storm system. 



Replacing energy inefficient features from the restoration 
period rather than improving their energy conservation 
potential. For example, replacing an entire historic light 
standard, rather than retrofitting the fixture to be more 
efficient. 



125 



Standards for Reconstruction <£j 
Guidelines for Reconstructing Cultural 
Landscapes f ] 



When the property's design, 
architectural, or historical signifi- 
cance during a particular period 
of time outweighs the potential 
loss of extant materials, features, 
spaces, and finishes that charac- 
terize other historical periods; 
when there is substantial physi- 
cal and documentary evidence 
for the work; and when contem- 
porary alterations and additions 
are not planned, Restoration 
may be considered as a treat- 
ment. Prior to undertaking work, 
a particular period of time, i.e., 
the restoration period, should be 
selected and justified, and a 
documentation plan for Restora- 
tion developed. 



Standards for Reconstruction 



Reconstruction is defined as the act or 
process of depicting, by means of new 
construction, the form, features, and de- 
tailing of a non-surviving site, landscape, 
building, structure, or object for the purpose 
of replicating its appearance at a specific 
period of time and in its historic location 



1 . Reconstruction will be used to depict vanished or non-surviving portions of a 
property when documentary and physical evidence is available to permit accurate 
reconstruction with minimal conjecture, and such reconstruction is essential to the 
public understanding of the property. 

2. Reconstruction of a landscape, building, structure, or object in its historic location 
will be preceded by a thorough archeological investigation to identify and evaluate 
those features and artifacts which are essential to an accurate reconstruction. If 
such resources must be disturbed, mitigation measures will be undertaken. 

3. Reconstruction will include measures to preserve any remaining historic 
materials, features, and spatial relationships. 

4. Reconstruction will be based on the accurate duplication of historic features and 
elements substantiated by documentary or physical evidence rather than on 
conjectural designs or the availability of different features from other historic 
properties, a reconstructed property will re-create the appearance of the non- 
surviving historic property in materials, design, color, and texture. 

5. A reconstruction will be clearly identified as a contemporary re-creation. 

6. Designs that were never executed historically will not be constructed. 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



Introduction 

Whereas the treatment Restoration pro- 
vides guidance on restoring-or re-creating- 
-cultural landscape features, the Stan- 
dards for Reconstruction and Guide- 
lines for Reconstructing Cultural 
Landscapes address those aspects of 
treatment necessary to re-create anentire 
non-surviving landscape with new material. 
Much like restoration, the goal is to make 
the landscape appear as it did at a 
particular-and most significant-time in 
history. The difference is that in 
Reconstruction, there is far less (if any) 
extant historic material prior to treatment 
and, in some cases, there may be nothing 
visible. Because of the potential for 
historical error in the absence of sound 
physical evidence, this treatment can be 
justified only rarely and, thus, is the least 
frequently undertaken treatment. 

For this reason, the various steps to be 
undertaken in Reconstruction-from 
research to new construction-are outlined, 
without providing the indepth information 
offered for the other three treatments. 
Similarly, because few total landscape 





None of the character-defining features of the South Terrace Garden at Monticello, in Charlottesville, Virginia, survived. Field archeology (taking 
over a decade) combined with documentary resources has resulted in the reconstruction of the garden's bedding areas, [above] stone retaining 
wall and pavilion, [top right] as well as the orchard, vineyard and berry squares on the adjacent sloping lands. The work was executed with a high 
level of accuracy. (Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation and author, 1996) 

130 



RECONSTRUCTION GUIDELINES 



reconstructions meet the Standards, illustrations are 
also limited. 

Documentation requirements priorto and following work 
are very stringent. Measures should be taken to 
preserve extant historic surface and subsurface 
material. Finally, the reconstructed landscape must be 
clearly identified as a contemporary re-creation. 

* Research and Document Historical Signifi- 
cance 

Guidance for the treatment Reconstruction begins 
with researching and documenting the landscape's 
historical significance to ascertain that its re-creation is 
essential to the public understanding of the property. 
Often, another extant historic landscape on, or nearthe 
property, can adequately explain the property, together 
with other interpretive aids. Justifying a reconstruction 
requires detailed physical and documentary evidence to 
minimize or eliminate conjecture and ensure that the 
reconstruction is as accurate as possible. Only one 
period of significance is generally identified; a 
landscape, as evolved, is rarely re-created. During this 
important fact-finding stage, if research does not provide 
adequate documentation for an accurate recon- 
struction, other interpretive methods should be 
considered, such as an explanatory marker. 



retained, when practical, and incorporated into the 
reconstruction. The historic as well as new material 
should be carefully documented to guide future research 
and treatment. Such documentation could include 
photographs, measured drawings, and work specifica- 
tions. 



H Reconstruct Non-Surviving Landscapes 

After the research and documentation phases, guidance 
is given for Reconstruction work itself. Features are 
addressed in general, always emphasizing the need for 
an accu rate depiction; for example, exact duplication of 
field patterns or installation of a perennial border with 
exact arrangement and same genus, species and 
cultivar plants. In the absence of extant historic 
materials, the objective in reconstruction is to re-create 
the appearance of the historic landscape for interpretive 
purposes. Thus, while the use of traditional materials 
and finishes is always preferred, in some, instances, 
substitute materials may be used if they convey the 
same visual appearance. 

Where non-visible features of the landscape are 
concerned-such as structural or mechanical systems- 
-it is expected that contemporary materials and 
technology will be employed. 



* Investigate Archeoiogical Resources 

Investigating archeoiogical resources is the next area 
of guidance in the treatmentReconstruction. The goal 
of physical research is to identify spatial organization 
and land patterns, features, and materials of the 
landscape which are essential to an accurate 
reconstruction, while leaving those archeoiogical 
resources that are not essential undisturbed. 
Resources that are not relevant to the project should be 
preserved in place for future research. The 
archaeological findings and archival materials are then 
used to document the reconstruction period. 



* Identify, Protect and Preserve Extant 
Historic Features 

Closely aligned with archeoiogical research, recommen- 
dations are given for identifying, protecting, and 
preserving extant features of the cultural landscape. It 
is never appropriate to base a Reconstruction upon 
conjectural plans or designs, or the availability of 
different features from other landscapes. Thus, any 
remaining historic features and materials, such as 
remnants of a foundation, walkway or pond, should be 



H Interpret the Reconstructed Landscape 

An integral component of Reconstruction is to make 
clear to the visiting public that the landscape is not 
authentic; rather, it is a portrayal of the past for 
interpretive purposes. Thus, the Standards for 
Reconstruction make clear that the need to identify the 
treatment through signs, markers or other interpretive 
tools. Often, a brochure explaining a landscape's history 
will note its disappearance over time and subsequent 
reconstruction-and interpreters also offer background 
so that visitors can understand what they are viewing. 



H Accessibility Considerations/Health and 
Safety Considerations/Environmental Consider- 
ations and Energy Efficiency 

Code requirements must also be met in Reconstruction 
projects. For code purposes, a reconstructed landscape 
may be considered as essentially new construction. 
Guidance for these sections is also abbreviated, and 
focuses on achieving design solutions that do not 
destroy extant historic features and materials or obscure 
reconstructed features. 



131 



Guidelines for 

Reconstructing Cultural Landscapes 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 

RECONSTRUCT NON-SURVIVING LANDSCAPES 
Research and Document Historical Significance 



Recommended 

Researching and documenting the property's historical 
significance, focusing on the availability of documentary 
and physical evidence needed to justify reconstruction of 
the non-surviving cultural landscape. 



Not Recommended 

Undertaking a reconstruction based on insufficient 
research so that, an historically inaccurate cultural 
landscape is created. 

Reconstructing a cultural landscape unnecessarily 
when an existing landscape adequately reflects or 
explains the history of the property, the historical event, 
or has the same associative value. 



Executing a design for the landscape that was never 
constructed historically. 



Investigate Archeological Resources 

Investigating archeological resources to identify and Failing to identify and evaluate archeological information 

evaluate the spatial organization and land patterns which prior to reconstruction, or destroying extant historical 

are essential to the design and/or layout of the information not relevant to the reconstruction which 

landscape. should be preserved in place. 



Minimizing ground disturbance to reduce the possibility 
of destroying archeological resources. 



Operating heavy machinery or equipment in areas where 
it may disturb archeological resources. 



Identify, Protect and Preserve Extant Historic Features 

Identifying, protecting and preserving extant historic Beginning reconstruction work without first conducting a 

features of the cultural landscape such as remnants of detailed site investigation to physically substantiate the 

structures, field patterns, or walkways. documentary evidence. 

Basing a reconstruction on conjectural designs or 
different features from other cultural landscapes. 



SPATIAL ORGANIZATION AND LAND PATTERNS 



Reconstructing the historic spatial organization or land 
patterns, including the size, configuration, proportion 
and relationship of landscape units; relationship of 
features to landscape units; and the landscape units 
themselves. For example, recreating a historic 
farmstead by reconstructing all of its buildings, 
structures, furnishings and objects to accurately convey 
the historic spatial organization and land patterns. 



Altering the documented spatial organization or land 
patterns or relocating extant features so that the historic 
relationship between the feature and the landscape unit 
is inaccurately depicted. For example, relocating a 
statue along an estate's main access after it was 
recovered from an off-site location. 



TOPOGRAPHY 



Reconstructing a non-surviving topographic feature to 
depict the documented historic appearance. 



Reconstructing topographic features that cannot be 
documented historically or for which inadequate 
documentation exists. 



134 



RECONSTRUCTION GUIDELINES 





The Privy Garden at Hampton 
Court, U.K., was originally de- 
signed for King William III in 1 702. 
By the mid-nineteenth century, 
William and Mary's "broderie" had 
completely disappeared. Since 
that time, the formal garden laid out 
for William III had provided an 
informal and shady retreat for 
visitors. As the scholarly basis for 
the reconstruction, archeology 
revealed the outlines of the garden; 
[top and middle] and was coupled 
with extensive research into the 
original planting design. The work 
included the propagation of original 
holly and yews to allow for in-kind 
replacement, [bottom and following 
page) All non-original vegetation 
from the garden (e.g. relocating 
trees of horticultural importance 
from later designs to an off-site 
nursery) was removed, (author, 
1994 and 1995) 

135 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



VEGETATION 



Reconstructing a non-surviving vegetation feature to 
depict the documented historic appearance. Although 
historic genus, species and cultivar are preferable, 
substitute materials may be used as long as they 
recreate the historic appearance-namely, habit, form, 
color, texture, bloom, fruit, fragrance, scale and context. 
For example, reestablishing a lost corn field using a 
contemporary cultivar having the same habit and growth 
cycle. 



Reconstructing vegetation features that cannot be 
documented historically or for which inadequate 
documentation exists. For example, installing a "period" 
herb garden. 

Using substitute materials that do not convey the 
appearance of the historic vegetation. 

Not reconstructing a documented vegetation feature; or 
replanting a feature but altering its historic appearance. 

Failing to identify and interpret the reconstruction of a 
lost vegetation feature, thus confusing the public 
understanding. 



CIRCULATION 



Reconstructing a non-surviving circulation feature to 
depict the documented historic appearance. Although 
traditional materials such as masonry, wood, and 
cinders are preferable, substitute materials may be used 
as long as they recreate the historical appearance. For 
example, utilizing a color pigmented concrete with a 
brushed finish to recreate a swept path. 



Reconstructing circulation features that cannot be 
documented historically or for which inadequate 
documentation exists. 

Using substitute materials that do not convey the 
appearance of the cultural landscape. 

Not reconstructing a documented circulation feature; or, 
rebuilding a feature but altering its historic design. 



Using inappropriate alignment, surface treatment, width, 
edge, grade, materials or infrastructure that do not 
convey the historic appearance. 




136 



RECONSTRUCTION GUIDELINES 



WATER FEATURES 



Reconstructing a non-surviving water feature to depict 
the documented historic appearance. Although 
traditional materials are preferable, substitute materials 
may be used as long as they recreate the historical 
appearance. For example, utilizing contemporary 
masonry units to re-create a stone-lined boat basin. 



Reconstructing water features that cannot be 
documented historically or for which inadequate 
documentation exists. 

Using substitute materials that do not convey the 
appearance of the cultural landscape. 

Not reconstructing a documented water feature, or 
rebuilding a feature but altering its historic design. 

Using inappropriate shape, edge and bottom condition/ 
materials, or water level, movement, sound, and 
reflective quality that do not convey the historic 
appearance. 



STRUCTURES. FURNISHINGS AND OBJECTS 



Reconstructing a non-surviving structure, furnishing or 
object to depict the documented historic appearance. 
Although traditional materials such as masonry, wood, 
and architectural metals are preferable, substitute 
materials may be used as long as they recreate the 
historical appearance. For example, recreating a stone 
perimeter wall using a poured concrete core and stone 
facing. 



Reconstructing a structure, furnishing and object that 
cannot be documented historically or for which 
inadequate documentation exists. 

Using substitute materials that do not convey the original 
appearance of the cultural landscape. 



Interpret the Reconstructed Landscape 



Using signs or interpretive markers to identify the build- 
ing, structure, furnishing or object as a contemporary 
re-creation. For example, installing new signage along 
a historic motorway, to identify the reconstruction of a 
scenic overlook. 



Failing to identify and interpret the reconstruction of a 
structure, furnishing or object as a re-creation, thus con- 
fusing the public understanding. 



Whereas preservation, rehabilitation, and restoration treatments usually necessitate retrofitting to 
meet code and energy requirements, in this treatment it is assumed that the reconstructed landscape 
will be essentially new construction. Thus, only minimal guidance is provided in the following section, 
although the work must still be assessed for its potential negative impact on the reconstructed 
landscape. 

ACCESSIBILITY CONSIDERATIONS 



Taking accessibility requirements into consideration 
early in the planning stage so that barrier-free access 
can be provided in a way that is compatible with the 
reconstruction. 



Obscuring or damaging the appearance of the 
reconstructed landscape in the process of providing 
barrier-free access. 



137 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



HEALTH AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 



Considering health and safety code requirements early 
in the planning stage of the project so that work is 
compatible with the reconstruction. For example, the 
installation of fire suppression systems or seismic 
retrofits. 



Meeting health and safety requirements without 
considering their visual impact on the reconstruction. 



ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS 



Taking environmental protection requirements into 
consideration early in the planning stage so that 
desirable environmental conditions can be provided in a 
way that is compatible with the reconstruction. For 
example, re-establishing a wetland to comply with 
applicable environmental regulations, while recreating 
the feature as it appeared historically. 



Obscuring or damaging the appearance of the 
reconstructed landscape in the process of providing 
environmental protection. 



ENERGY EFFICIENCY 



Considering energy efficiency requirements, such as 
passive solarfunctionsorwater conservation methods, 
early in the planning stage of the project so that work is 
incorporated into the reconstruction. 



Obscuring or damaging the appearance of the 
reconstructed landscape in the process of providing 
energy efficiency. 



138 




Appendices 




APPENDICES 



ANNOTATED LIST OF SELECTED READINGS 



This abbreviated bibliography includes books, thematic issues of publications, and conference proceedings dedicated to the preservation 
of cultural landscapes. However, it does not include individual articles or chapters contained in larger publications. For a much expanded 
bibliography refer to: Making Educated Decisions: A Landscape Preservation Bibliography . The bibliography published by the National Park 
Service Preservation Assistance Division in 1 994 includes over five hundred annotated citations referenced by subject, author and geographic 
indices. 



Ahern, Katherine; Blythe, Leslie H. and; Page, Robert R., eds. 
Cultural Landscape Bibliography: An Annotated Bibliogra- 
phy on Resources in the National Park System. Washington 
D.C.: Park Historic Architecture Division, Cultural Landscape 
Program, Washington Office, 1992. A variety of reports since 
1940 — over 100 studies for seventy parks organized by 
National Park Service Region. Chronological and park indices, 
bib. illus. 

Andropogon Associates, Ltd. Earthworks Landscape 

Management Manual., U.S. Department of the Interior National 
Park Service Park Historic Architecture Division. Cultural 
Resources, Washington, D.C., 1989. Management strategies 
and interpretive guidelines to resolve conflicts between 
preservation requirements and visitor impact on earthwork sites. 
Applicable to both natural and cultural landscapes. Includes 
guidelines of generic solutions, bib. illus. 

Andrus, Patrick W. Guidelines for Identifying, Evaluating, 
and Registering America's Historic Battlefields., U.S. 
Department of the Interior. National Park Service Cultural 
Resources. Interagency Resources Division., Washington, 
D.C., 1992. 27 pp. Historical perspective and current status. 
Rationale for battlefield preservation. Guidance for successful 
preparation of nominations. Definitions and types. Mapping, 
field work, setting boundaries, documentation and assessment 
techniques. Step-by-step process for determining integrity and 
significance, bib. illus. 

Austin, Richard L., Coordinating ed.; Kane, Thomas, J.; Melnick, 
Robert Z.; Turner, Suzanne Louise, Contributing eds. The 
Yearbook of Landscape Architecture Historic Preservation. 

New York, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1983. 
Twenty articles on the theory, philosophy, and implementation of 
landscape preservation work in the US. A variety of landscape 
types and geographic regions are represented. 

Bimbaum, Charles A., ed. "Focus on Landscape 

Preservation." Historic Preservation Forum 7, no. 3 (1993): 
69 pp. Presentation of recent advancements with an emphasis 
on the landscape preservation planning process, bib. illus. 

Birnbaum, Charles A., ed. The Landscape Universe: 
Historic Designed Landscape in Context, Armor Hall at 
Wave Hill, Bronx, New York, 23 April, 1993. United States: The 
Catalog of Landscape Records at Wave Hill in conjunction with the 
National Park Service, Preservation Assistance Division, 1993. 
1 1 3 pp. Consideration of an individual designer's career canon, 
extant legacy, design philosophy, in addition to geographic 
context, prior to treatment work at an individual property. 
Exploration of a variety of landscape types including estates, 
cemeteries, residential subdivisions, parks and park systems, 
bib. illus. 



National Park Service Cultural Resources. Preservation Assis- 
tance Division., Washington, D.C., (1994): 20 pp. Background and 
definitions. Step-by-step process for preserving historic designed 
and vernacular landscapes. A framework and guidance for 
undertaking project work to ensure a balance between historic 
preservation and change. Research, inventory, documentation, 
period plans, historic plant inventory, archaeology, analysis, 
treatment, interpretation, maintenance and implementation, bib. 
illus. 

Birnbaum, Charles A., ed. "A Reality Check for Our Nation's 
Parks." CRM 16, no.4 (1993): 44 pp. National case studies 
organized under three themes: establishing a context for 
treatment; planning for treatment; and, treatment implementa- 
tion. All projects utilize the draft Guidelines for the Treatment of 
Historic Landscapes. ' bib. illus. 

Birnbaum, Charles A.; Crowder, Lisa E., eds. Pioneers of 
American Landscape Design: An Annotated Bibliography. 

Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park 
Service, Cultural Resources, Preservation Assistance Division, 
Historic Landscape Initiative, 1993. Sixty-one biographical 
profiles. Nearly 1,200 bibliographic citations with location and 
description of archival collection contents. Introduction relates 
research to treatment work, illus. 144 pp. 

Birnbaum, Charles A.; Fix, Julie K., eds. Pioneers of American 
Landscape Design II: An Annotated Bibliography. Washing- 
ton, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 
Cultural Resources, Heritage Preservation Services Program, 
Historic Landscape Initiative, 1995. Fifty biographical profiles. 
Nearly 1 , 200 bibliographic citations with location and description 
of archival collection contents, illus. 180 pp. 

Birnbaum, Charles A.; Page, Robert R., eds. "Thematic Issue 
on Landscape Interpretation." CRM 17, no. 7 (1994): 48 pp. 
An exploration of research and documentation techniques, 
interpretive planning tools, the influence of culture values, and 
innovative projects. Examples from the US, UK, Europe and 
Australia, bib. illus. 

Bratton, Susan, ed. Vegetation Change and Historic 
Landscape Management: Proceedings of the Conference on 
Science in the National Parks., Colorado State University, Fort 
Collins, Colorado, 1 3-1 8 July 1 986. The George Wright Society 
and the U.S. National Park Service, 1 988. 214 pp. A variety of park 
landscapes from across the country. Mostly case study format 
including documentation, inventory and management, bib. illus. 

Buggey, Susan, ed. "Special Issue: Conserving Historic 
Landscapes." APT Bulletin 9, no. 3(1977): 106 pp. Focus on 
research and technology challenges from documentation 
techniques to treatment, illus. 



Birnbaum, Charles A. Preservation Brief 36: Protecting 
Cultural Landscapes: Planning, Treatment and Manage- 
ment of Historic Landscapes. , U.S. Department of the Interior. 



Buggey, Susan, ed. "Special Issue: Conserving Historic 
Landscapes." APT Bulletin 11, no. 4 (1979): 132 pp. Current 
developments. Unlike the theme issue two years earlier, a greater 



141 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



focus is placed on rural/vernacular landscapes. Examples from 
the US, UK, Canada and Australia, bib. illus. 

Buggey, Susan, ed. "Special Issue: Conserving Historic 
Landscapes." APT Bulletin 24, no.3&4 (1992): 84 pp. 
Definitions, principles, planning processes, standards and 
guidelines. Examples from the US, UK, Canada, with 
supplementary information on relative organizations, bib. illus. 

Burns, John and the staff of HABS/HAER, National Park Service, 
eds. "Recording Historic Landscapes" in Recording 
Historic Structures. Washington, D.C.: The American Institute 
of Architects Press, 1989. Predominantly structures. Includes 
chapter on the documentation of Meridian Hill Park, Wash., D.C. 
Detailed plans, sections, photographs, bib. illus. pp. 206-219. 



Frey, Susan Rademacher, ed.; with O'Donnell, Patricia M. and 
Melnick, Robert Z. "Preservation: Defining an Ethic." 
Landscape Architecture 77, no.4 (1987): 136 pp. Third theme 
issue of magazine. Planning treatment and management issues. 
Broadening the role of preservation within professional practice, 
bib. illus. 

Gagliardi, Neil; Morris, Stephen. Local Historic Preservation 
Plans: A Selected Annotated Bibliography. Washington, 
D.C: Branch of Preservation Planning, Interagency Resources 
Division, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, 
1993. Results of national survey of 1,800 communities. 
Emphasis on regional diversity, scale variety, scope and linking 
preservation with community concerns. Includes comprehen- 
sive and area preservation plans. Sample plans and charts, illus. 



Clay, Grady, ed. "Whose Time is This Place? The Emerging 
Science of Garden Preservation." Landscape Architec- 
ture vol 66, no. 5 (1 976): First theme issue of magazine devoted 
to the topic of landscape preservation. 

Coffin, Margaret. Guide to Developing a Preservation 
Maintenance Plan for a Historic Landscape. , Olmsted Center 
for Landscape Preservation, Cultural Landscape Publication 
No. 7, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, 
1 995. 55 pp. Integrating preservation objectives into landscape 
maintenance operations, and for planning and documenting 
work. bib. illus. 

Comp, T. Allan, ed. Regional Heritage Areas: Approaches to 
Sustainable Development., National Trust for Historic 
Preservation, Washington, D.C, 1994. 48 pp. National 
overview. Case studies: Southwestern Pennsylvania Heritage 
Preservation Program, Tennessee Overhill, Southwest Mon- 
tana, Iowa (Silos and Smokestacks Program), Mississippi 
Headwaters, and Potomac River Heritage Project. Systems 
examples: French Heritage Parks, Pennsylvania Heritage 
Parks. National Coalition background, concept, purpose and 
principles. Annotated state-by-state national guide, bib. illus. 

Day, Karen E. Restoring Vine Coverage to Historic 
Buildings., U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park 
Service Cultural Resources. Preservation Assistance Division., 
Washington, DC, 6 pp. Tech Note case study of nineteenth 
century trellis restoration project at Fairsted, Frederick Law 
Olmsted National Historic Site, Brookline, Mass. Historic 
background and experimental systems. Types: spiraled steel 
strapping, aircraft cable, modular pipe and combination 
alternatives. Notes on fabrication, installation, maintenance and 
findings. Construction details, bib. illus. 

Diehl, Janet; Barrett, Thomas S. et al. The Conservation 
Easement Handbook: Managing Land Conservation and 
Historic Preservation Easement Programs. 4th ed. San 

Francisco, California/ Washington, D.C: Trust for Public Land/ 
Land Trust Alliance, (1988): 269 pp. Tools to improve land 
protection efforts. Guidance for operating an easement 
program. Includes: techniques, criteria, compliance issues, 
competing land uses, and ethical responsibilities. Appendices: 
Model easement, IRS requirement checklist and national 
contacts, illus. 

Frey, Susan Rademacher, ed. "Preservation Leaps the 
Garden Wall." Landscape Architecture 71, no.1 (1981): 
Second landscape preservation theme issue. 



Gayle, Margot; Look, David W; and, Waite, John G. Metals in 
America's Historic Buildings. Washington, DC: Preservation 
Assistance, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the 
Interior, 1992. Although the focus of this publication is on 
structures, the historical survey of metals and strategies for 
dealing with deterioration and methods of preservation have 
applications to cultural landscapes. 

Gilbert, Cathy A.; Page, Robert R. and; Dolan, Susan A. 
Preparing Cultural Landscape Reports for Resources in the 
National Park System. Washington, DC: Park Historic 
Architecture and Cultural Landscapes Division, Cultural 
Landscape Program, 1996. The manual clarifies the purpose 
and use of the report, and defines its content, process and 
format. Additionally, technical information is provided on the 
methodologies and techniques for cultural landscape research, 
documentation, analysis and treatment. 

Gittings, Kirk. Introduction to Photographing Historic 
Properties., National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washing- 
ton, D.C, 1992. 16 pp. Tools, techniques and processes. 
Artistic and documentary methodologies. Considerations: on- 
site, selecting film, processing, printing and storage. Focus on 
structures. Photography standards from the Historic American 
Buildings Survey (HABS) and the National Register of Historic 
Places, bib. illus. 

Groth, Paul, ed., Vision, Culture and Landscape. Berkeley, 
California: Department of Landscape Architecture, University of 
California, Berkeley, 1990. 245 pp. Interpreting and reading 
cultural landscapes. Geographically and regionally diverse 
examples include rural, suburban and urban landscape types, 
bib. illus. 

Hart, John. Farming on the Edge: Saving Family Farms in 
Marin County, California. Berkeley and Los Angelos, 
California: University of California Press, 1991. 174 pp. Essays 
include: Waiting for the End; Back from the Edge: Crisis and 
Alliance; Something More Permanent; The Land in Trust; Marin 
the Model; a Grassland History; What Marin County Did (and 
Didn't Do), illus. 

Henry, Susan L. Protecting Archeological Sites on Private 

Lands. Washington, DC: National Park Service, Preservation 
Planning Branch, Interagency Resources Division, 1993. 
Archaeological values, regulatory, and non- regulatory strategies. 
Annotated appendices: protection strategies; the assessment 
process; seeking expertise; developer liaison; financial assis- 
tance; federal laws, bib. illus. 



142 



APPENDICES 



International Symposium on the Conservation of Urban 
Squares and Parks., Montreal, Canada, 12-15 May 1993. 
Quebec: Association Des Architectes, 391 pp. Ninety-three 
papers from Canada, the United States, United Kingdom, 
Denmark, New-Zealand, Australia, Spain, Turkey, France, 
Switzerland, Mexico, Malaysia, Italy and Singapore explore the 
history of urban parks and squares, historical and archaeological 
research methodologies, site inventories, recording, documenta- 
tion, analysis, treatment, interpretation, management, mainte- 
nance and ecology. 

Jackson, John Brinkerhoff. Discovering the Vernacular 

Landscape. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 
1 984. 1 65 pp. A cultural geographer's perspective on interpreting 
the vernacular landscape. Definitions. Reading landscape types 
and features including natural spaces, roads, forests, parks and 
habitats, bib. illus. 

Jester, Thomas C; Park, Sharon C. Making Historic Properties 
Accessible., U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park 
Service Cultural Resources. Preservation Assistance Division., 
Washington, D.C., 14 pp. Planning accessibility modifications 
and illustrated solutions. Overview of Federal Accessibility Law. 
Focus on structures, but includes "Making Historic Landscapes 
Accessible" (Charles A. Birnbaum). bib. illus. 

Keller, J. Timothy; Keller, Genevieve P. How to Evaluate and 
Nominate Designed Historic Landscapes., U.S. Department of 
the Interior. National Park Service Cultural Resources. 
Interagency Resources Division, Washington, D.C., 14 pp. 
Guidance for successful preparation of nominations for 
designed historic landscapes. Definitions and types. Field work, 
research, documentation and assessment techniques. Land- 
scape archaeology. Step-by-step process for determining 
integrity and significance. National examples, bib. illus. 

Lamme, Ary J., III. America's Historic Landscapes: 
Community Power and the Preservation of Four National 
Historic Sites. Knoxville, Tennessee: The University of 
Tennessee Press, 1989. 213 pp. Landscape and meaning, 
including a review of literature. Analysis of historic landscapes; 
"contemplative" analysis of landscape meaning; and, community 
perspectives. Eastern U.S. case studies: St. Augustine, Fla.; 
Colonial National Historical Park, Va.; Sackets Harbor, N.Y.; 
and, Gettysburg, Pa. Review of findings and strategies, bib. 
illus. 

Land Trust Alliance; The National Trust for Historic Preservation 
in the United States. Appraising Easements: Guidelines for 
Valuation of Historic Preservation and Land Conservation 
Easements. 2d ed. Land Trust Alliance and the National Trust 
for Historic Preservation in the United States, 1990. 82 pp. The 
process of easement appraisal. Includes the general principles 
of valuation, guidelines for appraisal reports, use of professional 
appraisal approaches, typical easements, and the role of the 
holding organization, bib. 

Landscape Preservation Seminar. University of 
Massachusetts at Amherst, 25-26 March 1988. University 
of Massachusetts at Amherst: Division of Continuing Education, 
1988. 89 pp. Preservation planning and management of a variety 
of landscape types from parks and gardens, to farms and 
battlefields. Tools and techniques for research, inventory, 
documentation, registration, analysis, treatment and manage- 
ment. 



Lee, Sharon, ed. "Historic Gardens." The Public Garden 7, 

no. 2 (1992): 40 pp. Preservation and management of historic 
public landscapes with an emphasis on historic plant materials, 
bib. illus. 

Lind, Brenda. The Conservation Easement Stewardship 
Guide: Designing, Monitoring, and Enforcing Easements., 

Washington, D.C.: Land Trust Alliance, 1991. 107 pp. 
Establishing a program, accepting, documenting, monitoring, 
enforcing and funding easements. Property owner and 
community relations. Appendices: rules for record keeping; 
sample survey and documentation forms; and, sample policies, 
illus. 

Mastran, Shelley S. The Protection of America's Scenic 
Byways., National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, 
D.C., 1993. 20 pp. Overview of federal and state programs. 
Threats from tourism and urban sprawl. Preservation planning 
tools: Corridor Management Plans and incentive programs. 
Case studies: Lexington-Frankfort, Ky. Scenic Corridor; Red 
Hills Regions ofGa. and Fla; Brandywine River Valley, Pa; and 
Columbia River Highway, Oreg. bib., annotated, illus. 

McClelland, Linda Flint and; Keller, J. Timothy; Keller, 
Genevieve P.; Melnick, Robert Z. Guidelines for Evaluating 
and Documenting Rural Historic Landscapes., U.S. 
Department of the Interior. National Park Service Cultural 
Resources. Interagency Resources Division., Washington, 
D.C., 33 pp. Guidance for successful preparation of 
nominations for rural/historic landscapes. Definitions and types. 
Field work, documentation and assessment techniques. 
Landscape archaeology. Matrix of landscape characteristics. 
Step-by-step process for determining integrity and significance. 
National examples, bib. illus. 

McMahon, Edward T.; Watson, A. Elizabeth. In Search of 
Collaboration: Historic Preservation and the Environmental 
Movement., National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washing- 
ton, D.C., 1992. 16 pp. Exploration of common roots, interests, 
and problems: energy conservation, urban environment, 
transportation, tourism, greenways and heritage corridors. 
Opportunities: sustainable development, partnerships, sharing 
tools, planning and programs. Case studies: Lancaster County, 
Pa.; Bodie State Park, Calif; Fenstermarker Ranch, San 
Antonio, Tex. illus. 

Meinig, D.W.,ed. The Interpretation of Ordinary Landscapes. 

New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979. 255 pp. A 
collection of essays on reading the landscape, from a cultural 
geographer's perspective. Reading landscape types and 
features including natural spaces, roads, forests, parks and 
habitats, bib. illus. 

Melnick, Robert Z. with; Sponn, Daniel and; Saxe, Emma Jane. 
Cultural Landscapes: Rural Historic Districts in the 
National Park Service., Washington, D.C.: National Park 
Service, 1 984. 80 pp. Identification, evaluation, registration, and 
management of rural landscapes including features, components 
and patterns. Contents of a Cultural Landscape Report. 
Appendices: Standards for managing cultural resources (NPS- 
28); definitions, sources or information, bib., annotated, illus. 

Melnick, Robert Z. Cultural and Historic Landscapes: A 
Selected Bibliography. Washington, DC: National Park 
Service, 1980. Organized in seven sections: architecture, 



143 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



geography, historic preservation, landscape, planning, miscella- 
neous, and related bibliographies. Focus on vernacular and rural 
landscape information contained in journals. 

Miller, Naomi F.; Gleason, Kathryn Louise. The Archeology of 
Garden and Field. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania 
Press, 1994. 228 pp. A contributed work with a variety of case 
studies and strategies for landscape archaeology. Includes 
inventory and analysis methodologies, bib. illus. 

Montagna, Dennis R. Conserving Outdoor Bronze 

Sculpture., U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park 
Service Cultural Resources. Preservation Assistance Division., 
Washington, D.C., 1989. 8 pp. Treatment case study of the 
Thaddeus Kosciuszko Monument, Wash., D.C. with air abrasive 
cleaning with pulverized walnut shells, followed by applications of 
corrosion inhibitor and protective wax coatings. Suggestions for 
maintenance and later evaluations, bib. illus. 

Noble, Bruce J. Jr; Spude, Robert. Guidelines for Identifying, 
Evaluating, and Registering Historic Mining Properties., U.S. 
Department of the Interior. National Park Service Cultural 
Resources. Interagency Resources Division., Washington, 
D.C, 1992. 30 pp. Background and contexts for mining. 
Guidance for successful preparation of nominations. Descrip- 
tion of processes: extraction, beneficiation and refining. Related 
property type descriptions. Field work, setting boundaries, 
documentation, inventory and assessment techniques. Step- 
by-step process for determining integrity and significance, bib. 
illus. 

Page, Robert R., ed. "Cultural Landscapes: The Intent and 
the Tenor of the Times." CRM 14, no.6 (1991): 28 pp. 
Highlights a diversity of landscape types and the range of activity 
underway in the research, documentation, planning, and 
management, illus. 

Potter, Elisabeth Walton; Boland, Beth M. Guidelines for 
Evaluating and Registering Cemeteries and Burial 
Places., U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service 
Cultural Resources. Interagency Resources Division., Washing- 
ton, D.C, 33 pp. American burial customs and cemeteries. 
Descriptions and types of burial places and their associated 
features. Guidance for successful preparation of nominations. 
Mapping, field work, archaeology, photography, setting bound- 
aries, documentation and assessment techniques. Step-by-step 
process for determining integrity and significance, bib. illus. 

Proceedings of the Canadian Parks Service Reconstruction 
Workshop., Hull, Quebec, 11-13 March 1992. Canada: 
National Historic Sites, Parks Service, Environment Canada, 
1993. 107 pp. Proceedings addressing five issues including: 
Challenges the CPS Faces with Existing Reconstructions; Values 
of Reconstructions as They Relate to Presentation; What CPS 
Should Do with its Ageing Reconstructions; Alternatives to Period 
Reconstruction; and Criteria for Reconstructions in the Future. 

Ramsay, Juliet. How to Record the National Estate Values of 
Gardens., Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 
Australia, 1991. 24 pp. A guide to identifying, surveying and 
evaluating condition and integrity of a garden as required by the 
Commission. Step-by-step process for researching its history, 
compiling a written narrative and generating plan. Summary of 
the Australian Heritage Commission Criteria, examples of survey 
forms and garden layout plans, bib. illus. 



Ramsay, Juliet. Parks, Gardens and Special Trees: A 
Classification and Assessment Method for the Register of 
the National Estate., Australian Government Publishing 
Service, Canberra, Australia, 1991. 54 pp. To standardize the 
assessment of nominations, different category classifications 
are described. To establish common terminology, groups of 
gardens with similar characteristics, called "types" or "type 
profiles" are defined with representative examples. Two 
sections: classification methods; assessment process. Matrix, 
plans, bib. illus. 

Reilly, Marilou, issue consultant. "Historic Transportation 
Corridors: A New and Dynamic Element of Historic 
Preservation." CRM 16, no. 11 (1993): 60 pp. Selected papers 
from the international conference held in Natchitoches, 
Louisiana. Tools for identification, documentation, registration, 
analysis, and management, illus. 

Rogers, Elizabeth Barlow. Rebuilding Central Park: A 
Management and Restoration Plan. Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts and London, U.K.: MIT Press, 1987. 160 pp. Preservation 
planning for N.Y.C., N.Y. landmark. Historic overview and 
detailed methodology for park analysis and later management. 
Divides park into twenty-two project areas, each with plans and 
photographs. Overview of Central Park Conservancy, illus. 

Starke, Barry M. Maymont Park — The Italian Garden., 

National Park Service, Washington, D.C, 1980. Rehabilitation 
plan for historic Richmond, Va. garden. Plans, sections, specs 
and details with an emphasis on masonry, bib. illus. 

Stokes, Samuel N.; Watson, A. Elizabeth; Keller, Genevieve P.; 
Keller, J. Timothy. Saving Americas Countryside: A Guide 
to Rural Conservation., Baltimore, Maryland: National Trust 
for Historic Preservation and Johns Hopkins University Press, 
1989.306 pp. Present day concerns and trends. Strategies and 
tools for identifying, analyzing, preserving and protecting rural and 
vernacular landscapes. National case studies include 
conservation programs, land protection techniques, voluntary 
techniques for protecting private property and community 
outreach and education. Sources of assistance and suggested 
readings, bib., annotated, illus. 

Strangstad, Lynette. A Graveyard Preservation Primer., 2d 

ed. Nashville, Tennessee: American Association for State and 
Local History, 1990. A "how-to" manual. Inventory, data 
collection, archaeology, and assessment strategies. Organiza- 
tional concerns: rubbings, volunteer coordination, public 
awareness, security, interpretation and funding. Sample survey 
forms, bib., annotated, illus. 

Strangstad, Lynette. Preservation of Historic Burial 
Grounds., National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, 
DC, 1994. 24 pp. Preservation planning guide. Project 
organization, necessary professionals, archaeology, mainte- 
nance, management, treatment and phasing. Cleaning burial 
markers. Preserving historic plant materials (by Scott Kunst). 
Case studies: Mt. Moriah Cemetery, Deadwood, N. Dak.; 
Magnolia Cemetery, Mobile, Ala.; and Randolph Cemetery, 
Columbia, S.C. Sample survey sheet for individual grave 
markers. Other national examples, bib. illus. 

Technologies for Prehistoric and Historic Preservation., 

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, 
D.C, 1986. 186 pp. Background and summary of findings: 



144 



APPENDICES 



preservation process, treatment issues, applied technology, 
public information, and federal policy. Landscape and archaeology 
discussed, illus. 

Technologies for the Preservation of Prehistoric and 
Historic Landscapes — Background Paper., U.S. Congress, 
Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, D.C., 1987.46 
pp. Technology and legislative recommendations pertaining to: 
landscape identification, the need for a center for preservation 
technology, and federal policy, bib. illus. 

Toth, Edward. An Ecosystem Approach to Woodland 
Management: The Case of Prospect Park., National 
Association for Olmsted Parks, Bethesda, Maryland, 1991. 14 
pp. Urban park management for 1866 OlmstedA/aux designed 
historic park. Over 100 acres of remnant woodland in various 
states of deterioration are addressed by specialized 
maintenance crews for horticulture, lawns, and natural 
resources. Six main tasks: controlling slope erosion, arresting 
soil depletion, controlling invasive species, replanting interior 
gaps, understory restoration and minimizing disturbance. 
Ravine I case study. Management zones and associated plant 
lists. Plans, bib. illus. 

Vernon, Noel Dorsey; Garvey, C. Elizabeth; Williams, Sherda K. 
Oral History Guidelines for Landscape Historians. 

Washington, D.C.: American Society of Landscape Architects 
Open Committee on Historic Preservation, 1990. Types of 
projects, organization, preparation, execution, and transcrip- 
tion. Ethical and legal considerations, bib., annotated. 

Weeks, Kay D.; Grimmer, Anne E. Secretary of the Interior's 
Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties with 
Guidelines for Preserving, Rehabilitating, Restoring and 
Reconstructing Historic Buildings., U.S. Department of the 
Interior. National Park Service. Cultural Resource Stewardship 
and Partnerships. Heritage Preservation Services, Washington, 
D.C., 1 995. 1 88 pp. Using the standards and choosing the most 
appropriate treatment for a building. Organized by building 
exterior and interior. The parallel document to these guidelines 
for structures, illus. 

Yaro, Robert D., ed. New England Landscape: An 
Interdisciplinary Journal of Landscape Planning and 
Design., 1, no.1 (1988): 110 pp. First and only issue published. 
Preservation-related papers: Land Trusts: Innovations on an 
Old New England Idea, Gordon Abbott, Jr.; The Changing New 
England Landscape: A Sociodemographic History, A.E. Luloff; 
Conserving Special Landscapes: a Case Study of Block Island, 
Judith Benedict; Cross-Cultural Planning: Learning from the 
British Countryside, Richard W. Carbin. bib. illus. 



145 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 

DIRECTORY OF ORGANIZATIONS 

The National Park Service is in the process of developing a directory of organizations that deal with landscape preservation issues at a 
national and state level. To date, the holdings include over 300 organizations. The following organizations are only a sampling, produce 
related materials, and can answer your questions about historic landscape activities: 



H National Park Service (NPS) 

U.S. Department of the Interior 
P.O. Box 371 27 
Washington D.C. 20013-7127 
(202) 343-9578 

The NPS has a variety of cultural resource programs that 
address the preservation of the nation's resources, both within 
and outside the NPS system. The NPS provides both policy and 
technical information regarding identification, documentation, 
evaluation, treatment and management of historic landscapes. 



H American Planning Association (APA) 

1776 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 2036 
(202) 872-061 1 

The APA monitors developments in planning, sponsors 
educational programs, prepares publications, and develops 
educational policies on planning issues. Several specialized 
APA committees address a variety of related issues. This 
includes rural and small town planning and preservation, urban 
design and historic preservation. 



H American Association for State and Local 
History (AASLH) 

530 Church Street, Suite 600 
Nashville, Tennessee 3721 9 
(615)255-2971 

The AASLH supports citizen participation in the preservation of 
North American history. They provide seminars and workshops, 
support an annual meeting, a quarterly magazine and a monthly 
newsletter. In recent years, the AASLH has placed a greater 
emphasis on landscapes with several papers published on the 
topic. 



H American Association of Botanical Gardens 
and Arboreta (AABGA) 

786 Church Road 

Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087 

(610)688-1120 

The AABGA serves American botanical gardens, arboreta, and 
their professional staff on behalf of the public and horticulture 
profession. Membership is varied and includes many historic 
properties. Most recently the organization has formed a 
specialized committee that deals specifically with historic 
landscape and preservation issues. 



M American Farmland Trust (AFT) 

1920 N Street, N.W. Suite 400 
Washington, D.C. 20036 
(202)659-5170 

The AFT works to protect our national legacy of agricultural 
resources. Primary goals of AFT include working with 
communities to prevent the loss of productive farmland, and to 
promote ideal farming practices. The AFT also administers a 
revolving loan fund for farmland acquisitions and promotion. 



M Applied Preservation Technology (APT) 

PO Box 3511 

Williamsburg, Virginia 23187 
(703)373-1621 

APT is involved in the conservation and protection of historic 
properties and artifact resources. APT holds annual 
conferences, sponsors workshops, and organizes tours that 
often feature historic landscapes and landscape preservation 
issues. The APT Bulletin, has for over twenty years addressed 
the topic of landscape preservation. 



H American Society of Landscape Architects 
(ASLA) 

4401 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. 
Washington D.C. 20008-2302 
(202) 686-2752 

Founded in 1899, ASLA is the professional membership 
organization for practicing landscape architects in the U.S. In 
1970 the ASLA established the Historic Preservation Open 
Committee (HPOC). To date, the committee has sponsored ten 
annual landscape preservation symposia and produces the 
newsletter, Land & History two to four times annually. 



H The Alliance for Historic Landscape 
Preservation 

82 Wall Street 

Suite 1105 

New York, New York 10005 

(608) 256-7585 

The Alliance is an inter-disciplinary professional organization 
which provides a forum for communication and exchange of 
information among its members. It is dedicated to the 
preservation and conservation of historic landscapes, from 
formal gardens and public parks to rural expanses. 



146 



APPENDICES 



H Catalog of Landscape Records in the United 
States at Wave Hill 

675 West 252nd Street 
Bronx, New York 10471 
(718)549-3200 

The Catalog is a cumulative index to all documentation for 
landscapes, past and present. The Catalog's growing database 
describes the scope, location and content of public and private 
collections of landscape records in this country. The Catalog 
publishes a quarterly newsletter and serves as a national 
clearinghouse on the care, management and placement of 
landscape records. It is a project of the American Garden and 
Landscape History Program at Wave Hill. 



H The Garden Conservancy (TGC) 

Box 21 9 

Albany Post Road 

Cold Spring, New York 1 051 6 

(914)265.2029 

The TGC is a national organization working to preserve 
America's exceptional gardens. Formed in 1989, the TGC 
facilitates the transition of gardens from private to independent 
nonprofit ownership and operation. The TGC is also a resource 
for individuals and community groups in need of legal, fund- 
raising, and management assistance to further their own garden 
preservation projects. Through its educational and garden- 
visiting programs, the Conservancy serves the public's growing 
interest in gardens while developing broad support for garden 
preservation. 



H The Garden Club of America (GCA) 

598 Madison Avenue 
New York, New York 1 0022 
(212)753-8287 

Established in 1913, The GCA is a national organization with 
member clubs from coast to coast and in Hawaii working to 
improve and protect the quality of the environment, to educate 
the public and to promote the knowledge and love of gardening. 
The GCA is concerned with the protection of historic landscapes 
and has been active in efforts to protect such resources from 
destruction. 



* International Council on Monuments and Sites, 
U.S. Committee (US ICOMOS) 

National Building Museum 
401 F Street N.W. Room 331 
Washington D.C. 20001-2728 
(202)842-1866 

US/ICOMOS is one of 60 national committees of ICOMOS. 
ICOMOS fosters preservation of cultural resources world-wide 
through an international network and as an advisor to the United 
Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization 
(UNESCO) on World Heritage Sites. The US/ICOMOS Historic 



Landscape Committee is one of several specialized committees. 
Established in 1989, the committee promotes recognition and 
protection of historic landscapes. 



H Land Trust Alliance (LTA) 

900 17th Street, N.W., Suite 410 
Washington, D.C. 20006-2501 
(202)785-1410 

Founded in 1 982, the LTA serves as an umbrella group for the 
land trust movement. The Alliance provides a broad range of 
services, from insurance to training aimed at helping to 
strengthen individual land trusts. The LTA acts as the voice for 
local and regional land conservation groups in its surrounding 
area. The LTA focuses on public policy issues of direct interest 
to land trusts, taking on both educational and advocacy roles. 
The Alliance produces a quarterly journal. 



H National Association for Olmsted Parks 

7315 Wisconsin Avenue, #504 East 
Bethesda, Maryland 2081 5 
(202) 362-951 1 

Founded in 1980, the NAOP is a national network of volunteers 
and professionals, working to promote and protect the Olmsted 
legacy. NAOP is a non-profit membership organization. It has 
local chapters across the nation. It is the leading organization 
dedicated to preserving the landscapes designed by Olmsted, 
his successors, and followers. 



H National Conference of State Historic 
Preservation Officers 

444 North Capitol Street, N.W. Suite 342 
Washington D.C. 20001 
(202) 624-5465 

Each state has a Historic Preservation Officer appointed by the 
Governor to carry out the National Historic Preservation Act for 
the Secretary of the Interior. Their responsibilities include 
conducting cultural resource surveys, preparing comprehen- 
sive statewide preservation plans, nominating landscapes to the 
National Register of Historic Places, reviewing Federal projects 
for effects on historic landscapes, administering a range of 
assistance programs, provide public information, offering 
education and training programs, and furnishing technical 
assistance to counties, cities, and towns in developing local 
preservation programs. 



H National Trust for Historic Preservation 

1785 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. 
Washington D.C. 20036 
(202) 673-4000 

The National Trust is a national private, nonprofit organization 
chartered Congress. Its mission is to foster an appreciation of 
the diverse character and meaning of our American cultural 
heritage and to preserve and revitalize the livability of our 



147 



GUIDELINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES 



communities by leading the nation in saving America's historic 
environments. 



H The Nature Conservancy 

1800 North Kent Street 
Arlington, Virginia 22209 
(703)841-8744 

The Conservancy has a primary commitment to the conservation 
of threatened or endangered species, habitats, and natural 
communities in the U.S. The Conservancy has also undertaken 
work in the preservation of historic and cultural resources. 



H Scenic America 
21 DuPont Circle N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20036 
(202) 833-4300 

Scenic America's mission is to preserve and enhance the scenic 
character of America's communities and countrysides. 



H The Society for Commercial Archaeology 
(SCA) 

c/o Room 5010 

National Museum of American History 

Washington, D.C. 20560 

(202) 882-5424 

The SCA is the oldest national organization devoted to the 
commercial-built environment. The purpose of SCA is to 
recognize the unique historical significance of that environment 
and the cultural landscapes of America, with a particular 
emphasis on the impact the automobile had on the shaping of 
our culture. 



M The Society for Historical Archaeology 
(SHA) 

5250 Cherokee Avenue, 5th Floor 
Alexandria, Virginia 2231 2 
(703)354-9737 

Formed in 1 967, the SHA is the largest scholarly group concerned 
with the archaeology of the modern world (A.D. 1400-present). 
The main focus of the Society is the era since the beginning of 
European exploration. The SHA promotes scholarly research and 
the dissemination of knowledge concerning historical archaeol- 
ogy. The Society also is specifically concerned with the 
identification, excavation, interpretation, and conservation of sites 
and materials on land and underwater. The SHA holds an annual 
meeting in January and produce a quarterly journal and 
newsletter. 

H Vernacular Architecture Forum (VAF) 

c/o Peter Kurtze, Secretary 
109 Brandon Road 
Baltimore, Maryland 21212 

In 1980, the VAF was formed to encourage the study of 
"vernacular archietcture"--namely, traditional domestic and 
agricultural buildings, industrial and commercial structures, 
twentieth-century suburban houses, settlement patterns, and 
cultural landscapes. The organization's membership is 
multidisciplinary and includes historians, designers, archeolo- 
gists, folklorists, historians, geographers, curators and 
preservationists. The VAF holds an annual meeting, produces a 
quarterly newsletter and occasional books. 



For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office 
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